Current status of flora and fauna of Kyrgyzstan

Dec 03, 11 Current status of flora and fauna of Kyrgyzstan

Current status of flora and fauna of Kyrgyzstan

The contrasts of nature in Kyrgyzstan: the location in the center of the continent, far from oceans and seas, surrounded by vast deserts, variously oriented ridges raised above the snow line, the complex genesis – it all leads to the richness and diversity of biota. For a small area of ​​the country (199.9 thousand sq. km) is characterized by a significant floristic richness of the higher (3786 species) and lower plants (3464 species).

In Kyrgyzstan, grows half the species of higher plants throughout Central Asia, the number of births – 70%, the number of families – almost 90%. The flora of higher plants has a high degree of endemism. At least 200 species found only on the territory of the Republic. Algae, lichens and bryophytes are not fully understood. Several more fungi studied, but in this case, the majority of endemics studied very poorly.

In a small area in Kyrgyzstan, which occupies only 1% of the former Soviet Union, there are almost all types of vegetation characteristic of the Eurasian continent: subnival vegetation cryophyte cushion, cryophyte friganoidy, cryophyte savannoidy, coniferous forests, shrubs and meadows, friganoidy, broad-leaved Forest and savannoidy. The originality of the original vegetation of the republic give cenoses plant, where the dominants are endemic species – fir Semenov Semenov onion, ekzohorda Tien Shan, Kashgar barberry, purple and farrier sidyachetsvetkovy, cryophyte cushion. On the territory of the Republic are unique walnut forests of walnut, pear Korzhinsky, coniferous forests of spruce and juniper Schrenk – from different types of junipers.

Table 1. The number of endemic species and in different taxonomic groups of flora in Kyrgyzstan

Second on the economic value – natural grass ecosystems that are used as pastures and hayfields. All of them have experienced prolonged and profound impact of human activity and almost 70% eroded. Reduced grazing on distant pastures leads to their recovery. However, it is largely due to proliferation of weed species.

Of particular importance are the aquatic ecosystems, primarily as a source of fresh water and recreational facilities. Of these, Lake Issyk-Kul has the largest recreational resource, not only nationally, but in the long term, regionally and globally. Especially valuable are the unique walnut-fruit forests of Southern Kyrgyzstan. Noting the great importance of fruit and nut of the array as a unique natural formation, it should be emphasized that here, along with a great diversity of species, there is a huge variety of molded walnut, apple, almonds, pistachios, plums, pears, etc., which allowed at one time Vavilov take it to one of the centers of origin of cultivated fruit plants. From this perspective, the array represents the greatest value as a keeper of a huge gene pool.

Contrary to public opinion, an agreement was reached with the Canadian firm of harvesting timber in the forests of walnut. This increases the threat to their livelihood. They are subject to strong anthropogenic pressure, including those associated with the presence of permanently unemployed, directly on the forest area. Natural regeneration of nut forests virtually disappeared several decades ago, except for the sections of Sary-Chelek Reserve.

On the territory of the republic grows 600 species of useful plants of wild flora. Multi-species families tend more useful species. The most numerous on the grounds of the family: Roaseae – 224 species, Fabaceae – 222, Asteraceae – 80, Brassicaceae – 73, Rosaceae – 50, Alliaceae – 49 and so on.

The negative impact on the natural gene pool of plants provides a powerful press of anthropogenic impacts, resulting in the number and diversity of their reduced and a number of species on the brink of extinction.

Kyrgyzstan has identified more than 200 species of medicinal plants. Among them of special value: smelly rue (Thalictrum foetidum), Karakol aconite (A. karacolicum), big elecampane (Inula grandis), Turkestan motherwort (Leonurus turkestanicus), thermopsis Turkestan (Thermopsis turkestanica), St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), a mother and common-stepmother (Tussilago farfara), oregano (Origanum vulgare), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), horsetail ephedra (Ephedra equisetina), Lobel hellebore (Veratrum lobelianum).

Nature of Kyrgyzstan is rich in wild plants that have economic value. These plants include: tanning ram (Polygonum coriarium), liquorice (Glycyrrrhiza glabra), knotweed (different types, Polygonum), barberry (Berberis), Vitrokka rhubarb (Rheum wittrockii), anabasis, ezhovnik leafless (Anabasis aphylla), ferule ( different types, Ferula), Fergana spurge (Euphorbia ferganica), onosma (different types, Onosma), thyme (different types, Thymus) and others.

Two. Fauna

There are 12 types of animals. Among the most studied species of vertebrates, the least – arthropods. Of the vertebrates, there are 68 species of fish, 4 – amphibians, 28 – reptiles, 368 – birds, 93 – mammals. Among the 54 species of nematodes are known, shellfish – 94. Of the large number of insect species – 2760 species anywhere but in Kyrgyzstan do not occur. Many species of fish, reptiles, birds, mammals endemic subspecies form here. The high degree of endemism in the different groups indicates the existence in Kyrgyzstan center of speciation.

The idea of ​​the value of the territory in terms of biodiversity can be obtained from a comparison with international figures. As seen from the first part of the National Strategy for the table, on a relatively small area constituting only 0.13% of total land area of ​​the planet, a sufficiently large representation of almost all taxonomic groups. Particularly expressive concentrations of species diversity. It is for most groups is much higher than the global average. These figures are higher than the average for Central Asia, which indicates a high saturation of the mountainous country views.

Table 2. The number of endemic species and in different taxonomic groups of animals in Kyrgyzstan

Areas

Kyrgyzstan has an extraordinary variety of natural conditions. This fact and the location at the junction of contrasting biogeographic provinces (Junggar, Afghan-Turkestan, Pamir-Alai, Kashgar) resulted in the complexity of its biogeographic structure. In this case the high endemism of the flora and fauna of the Tien Shan and Alai, the uniqueness of communities and ecosystems, in particular relic, allows to recognize the various territorial divisions of the biota of Kyrgyzstan an independent biogeographical status. Factors determining the biogeographical complexity and richness of biodiversity in Kyrgyzstan are:

Well-defined vertical zones throughout the distribution of plants and animals. This form of the desert, steppe, savannoidy, deciduous shrubs, forests, grasslands, thorny, subnival vegetation.

Landscapes and communities in a highly dissected topography have a mosaic structure, where in close proximity to the species, on the plains separated by hundreds of kilometers.

Changing climatic factors also occurs in the latitudinal direction (north-east – south-west) and creates the conditions that satisfy the most diverse biota. The geological history of the Tien Shan mountains, which gave conditions for the preservation