The importance of mountain biodiversity Osoboya

Dec 08, 11 The importance of mountain biodiversity Osoboya

The importance of mountain biodiversity Osoboya

The natural environment of mountains is the most diverse and sophisticated in comparison with the lowland ecosystem of the planet. The ecosystem of mountainous areas are zones of permanent permafrost, glaciers, mountain ranges and rivers, lakes and bogs, tundra and meadows, forests and land, overgrown with bushes. In the mountains you can find landscapes, typical for the tropics and the arctic environment, which provides a unique wealth of their biodiversity.

According to the classification of Groombridge (1992), there are three types of biodiversity: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. The latter is defined as a community of organisms interacting with their physical environment. Each species is the result of biological evolution experiment (Mayr, 1988). So the mountains are unique, experimental natural polygons, generating constant change as a result of sudden tectonic, climatic and biological events and changes.

Experimental areas of the mountains depend on the specifics of mountain areas, latitude and altitude above sea level, on the relief, illumination, and distance from the ocean, prevailing wind directions and on many others. Are created due to this type of climate and vegetation form a complex mosaic of ecosystems, consisting of numerous topoklimatov and special microclimate, which is characteristic for the location. Often these features are determined by the nature of vegetation, geotectonic structure of the area and its rugged topography. The mountains are often endemic centers of biodiversity of flora and fauna.

Biodiversity can serve as a defining characteristic of mountain systems and their components, in addition to performance, depending on the nature of ridges, peaks and valleys. Each of these components can be regarded as more or less isolated island among the surrounding ecological valleys, existing ponds, etc. Specific mountain systems differ greatly from each other, that determines the characteristics of local ecosystems, characterized by their natural or isolation, or the degree of use of this system for specific land uses. This leads to difficulties in comparing ecosystems, to determine their characteristics according to different classification scales. Because of the large geological and climatic differences mountainous islands of life projects for the preservation of national and global biodiversity tend to be concentrated in certain areas. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and World Union of Environmental Management (IUCN) identified priorities for the centers of plant diversity, selected according to previously conducted inventory, and after detailed consultation with experts from the world (WWF / IUCN, 1994). Most of these centers is located in mountainous areas.

In the mountains are many endemic species of plants and animals, especially in areas with high concentrations of species with strong restrictions on their territorial distribution. Endemic species can be described in taxonomic terms, or as products of local origin of the recent (new endemics), or as relics of a wide spread in the past (the old endemics). In the hollows or valleys between common population, previously widespread on the plains, displaced from their usual places of habitation in the mountain regions. Endemics and relicts are the most valuable treasure of biodiversity. They provide important components for the evaluation of past species diversity on the planet and make it possible to predict the possible changes in the future. Unfortunately, most of these species are registered in the Red Data Book as endangered or threatened with extinction and strictly protected conservation agencies.

Geotectonic, climatic, and biological components of the natural mountain environment subject to constant and significant changes that define the characteristics of the physical environment and life strategies of plants and animals. The fragility of mountain ecosystems is due to the high sensitivity of biota to the intervention of a dynamic physical environmental factors and competition from other populations and in particular to the increasing human activities in the mountains.

Increasing human pressure on mountain environment in the first place causing substantial damage to biodiversity.

The extinction of the population – an irreparable effect as species disappear forever from the face of the earth. Although similar phenomena occurred always been important elements of evolution, but now they took a threatening and often irreversible. Freed niche might be, perhaps, and not filled with other species, however, the development of new types of leave millennium. With great confidence we can assert that the rate of species extinction on Earth has increased because of human activities. In addition, the extinction of species is often the cause of the destruction of fragile mountain ecosystems.

AGENDA FOR THE 21ST CENTURY AND EFFORTS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MINING AREAS IN KYRGYZSTAN

World Forum, held in Rio in 1992 drew international attention to mountain issues: in Chapter 13 of Agenda 21 Century Summit in Rio says: Raise public awareness and understanding of the importance of sustainable mountain development at the global, regional and national levels; Protect natural rock resources and the development of technical and institutional framework with the aims to reduce natural disasters, strengthen the global mountain information network and database in order to

impact on government, public bodies and individuals associated with the problems of mountain regions, strengthen the capacity of mountainous countries to improve the planning, implementation of new technologies, monitoring programs and activities on sustainable development of mountain regions, strengthen the fight against poverty through the creation of an enabling legislation the observational and economic conditions for the activities aimed at the development of mountain areas and mountain people to help generate revenue, improve infrastructure and social services, in particular the protection of sources and livelihoods of local communities (communities) and the initiation of negotiations for the adoption of regional and sub-regional conventions on mountains, and perhaps , the development of global

Mining Charter.

During the Summit in Rio in 1992, established the Commission on Sustainable Development, whose competence, along with the development of inspection (survey) of progress in five years, as set out in the Rio Plus Five or Check (Review) Earth Summit in 1997 year, were appointed managers of the so-called focal points (focal points) within the UN system. Food and Agriculture Organization – FAO – assumed the role of manager assignments for Chapter 13 of Agenda 21 of Rio Summit Century (Managing fragile ecosystems, sustainable development of mountains). Thus, FAO is responsible for reporting on the implementation and strengthening of information exchange, to promote the inter-ministerial consultations, with the coordination and initiation of joint activities and programs to develop common strategies for the development of mountain areas. In 1994, an interagency group was established to implement Chapter 13 of Agenda 21 Century Summit, consisting of representatives of various UN organizations, and also from international NGOs.

In 1995 was created by Mountain Forum, which represents a network of organizations and institutions related to sustainable mountain development. The focal points (focal points), coordinating regional cooperation activities in this area are part of the network. These focal points (focal points) are: Consortium of sustainable development the Andean Ecoregion (CONDESAN), for

Latin America and the Caribbean, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), for Asia and the Pacific Rim.

Also established a regional network in Europe, under the leadership of the Swiss Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Institute of Geography at the University of Bern. Formed African mining center based NGO.

As part of this global movement in Central Asia was held