Geoecology

Jan 17, 12 Geoecology

Geoecological prosperous state, the current and prospective level of ecological safety of the territory of the Republic of Kyrgyzskoy determined by the state of mountain landscapes and ecosystems. Mountain landscapes and ecosystems characterized by certain of instability and insecurity, increased vulnerability and sensitivity to various natural and anthropogenic influences. At this stage of economic development of mountain landscapes and ecosystems are still a condition and livelihood of our people and their productive activities. Mountain landscapes and ecosystems are the first medium of the existence of our people, and secondly they are widely used as a natural resource, and thirdly to change, transform and disrupt the process of long-term and ongoing business operations. Before the 20th century, human activities do not cause appreciable damage to mountain ecosystems and landscapes. Particularly sharp increase in the anthropogenic impact interaction occurred in the last century. Since that time, is reinforced by the transformation of natural landscapes and ecosystems that are converted into an artificial territory (cultural and transformed landscapes and ecosystems we are), where there are not only favorable for the existence of the medium but a man, but also the deterioration of condition for ecological security ty, various physico- chemical compounds, to-rye have negative, even poisonous biological cal parameters. As a result of globalization, environmental and technological activities in the future in the republic may occur threatening large-scale transformation, depletion, pollution, environmental Cheskaya violates the stability and balance shafts mountain landscape and ecosystem.

Currently Kyrgyzskaya Republic has a relatively small landscapes and ecosystems, occupying the territory theory (20%) with a comfortable life for the environmental conditions. In these landscapes are concentrated in the major part of the village, almost all industrial and agricultural production. It is these landscapes are currently experiencing a maximum, sometimes uncontrollable anthropogenic.

Impacts resulting from daily human activities exacerbate the devastating effects of negative natural and climatic such factors occurring in the mountainous landscapes and ecosystems ax. Of the negative natural to limaticheskih factors should be highlighted n rodolzhayuschuyusya arid (drying) of the climate of Central Asia and adjacent thereto mountain landscapes of our country. Ation Aridiz climate leads to desertification iaftov landscape in the valleys and lowlands, decreased plant productivity, soil erosion and degradation tochv, reducing the area of ​​mountain forests and glaciers on the mountain tops ikov. All above to omponenty mountain landscapes are the first fundamental existence and reproduction of living organisms, there is nly available, but also re republics of the population. Therefore, the natural economic wealth of our country is determined not only by the presence of minerals, as well as state and preservation of mountain landscapes and ecosystems in the country, to-rye support and ensure the environmental safety of the public and the state.

The position of the Republic during the transition period had a significant impact on the quality condition of ecological safety of mountain landscapes and ecosystems in several directions leniyam: a) higher energy prices, a quantitative reduction in the consumption of raw materials led to a slight reduction of emissions and discharges of pollutants, and b) in the agriculture of- a sharp reduction in livestock numbers decreased load on some remote summer pastures, and c) the restriction of possibilities of the state to solve economic and social problems of the population, pushing him to seek alternative sources of income, mainly due to illegal use and immense use some of the available natural resources (forest, the animals and others). In this regard, there is a tendency to increase the poaching and massive felling of trees and couscous tarnikov in the autumn and winter fuel, and d) reduction of capital expenditures and current expenditures ing to preserve ecological safety, environmental protection and natural resource management, and e) the weakening of control and inspection work at the provincial and district level, in the absence of environmental workers, who own in new ways, based on global environmental standards and regulatory databases, g) is not timely application of economic regulation and Ry chagov incentives based on market relations bathrooms , held at Institute of Environmental Monitoring, and h) outdated and faulty treatment facilities and installations, as well as worn and weak mate rial and technical base of enterprises and organizations of the Ministry of ecology and emergency situations, the republic of tea.

At the present time, to preserve ecological safety, environmental protection and sustainable use of natural resources is limited to the share of investment over the past 10 years in an average year it amounted to 0.5-0.6% of gross domestic product (GDP) Kyr camp. On the territory of mountain landscapes and ecological systems continues air pollution, surface water and soils; preserved environmental threat from industrial and other waste vichov; continuing huge negative impact on the preservation of biological diversity; acute problem of preserving areas of mountain forests.

Pollution of atmospheric air of the spirit. At present the system in the country matic control pollution atm atmospheric air is conducted in six cities (Bishke ke, Osh, Tokmok, Kara-Balta, Jalal-Abad, Cholpon-Ata). Studies show Meteorological Service of the Ministry of ecology and energy emergencies, the air is most polluted benzo-pyrene (carcinogenic hazard of the first class) in Bishkek, Osh, Tokmok, Kara-Balta. Over the past 10 years, the maximum content of benzopyrene regularly observed dalos in Bishkek – 60 MPC. (Maximum admissible concentration COMPATIBLES) in Osh – 36 MPC in the current MoCA – 50 MAC, Kara-Balta – 15 MPC. Woz stuffy pools of Bishkek, Osh, Tokmok, Kara-Balta, Jalal-Abad very dusty. Latest Activity for the settlement of 10 years in Bishkek, as reported by the IU meteorological service, average concentrations of dust, soluble sul fatov and hydrogen cyanide is 1.3 – 3.3 MAC, while the annual average air pollution of the atmosphere Ry Bishkek dioxide and nitrogen oxide ranged from a 8 to 3.2 MAC. In Osh, the volume of air pollution concentrations of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, form maldegida significantly higher than the MAC. Tion of air pollution in Tokmok dust, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and exceeds the MCL. In the Kara-Balta occasionally observed atmospheric pollution by dust and air tion. carbon monoxide above. MPC. In general, the pollution of atmospheric air of the spirit is of local character, resulting in the ecological situation in cities and large towns across the country are systematically worse. At present, the republic are 257 different objects with 5260 air pollution sources medium. Their average annual emissions of pollutants into the air is more than 47 tons on the territory of the Republic of Kyrgyzskoy theory over the past 10 years, the total damage caused by emissions depleting substances into the atmosphere each year on average from 30 to 40 million soms.

The main sources of atmospheric pollution are air Furno, transport (road, rail, air), energy sector companies and public utilities (CHP, boilers, etc.), industry, mining, engineering, processing industry, construction industry GOVERNMENTAL materials, and ers and numerous indie and private sector. The main polluting substances to use for stationary sources (CHP, boilers, industrial enterprises and others) are dust, sulfur hydride, Al, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc. The largest volume of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere over the past 10 years accounted for solid emissions (dust) and 59% of sulfur dioxide from 16 to 34%, carbon monoxide from 14 to 31%, nitrogen oxide from 3.9 to 7.9%. The level of treatment efficiency of waste contaminants in an average year (for the last 10 years) is 80-85%. The most fully captured by applying solid B, purification of-ryh the republic is about 92%. Emissions of harmful substances in atmospheric air HYDRATED There are 300 thousand unit prostrate vehicles. As a result of inspections during Operation Clean Air in the last 10 years the share of state. car, operate shihsya with excess emission standards and opacity of each year an average of about 30%. The share of individual vehicles, operated in excess of the standards of toxicity, and smoke is almost 40%. Number of private vehicles in the country is 1.5 times the count of state.

According to Kyrgyzstandard as a result of systematic verification of the realization tion of fuels and lubricants, estab HN facts depravity quality of gasoline, which had levels of lead, heavy hydrocarbons in excess of the norm by 2-5 times. This adversely affects the operation of motor vehicles and leads to a large count of toxic emissions that pollute the air.

In addition to the above sources of definite amount of pollutants coming from densely populated areas and industrial districts of the cities of neighboring countries – Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Ka khstan. The pollutants of anthropogenic origin, in connection with the turnover and mobility of air transported over long distances of, this is accompanied by global and regional tional air pollution. During the deposition of pollutants from the air onto the surface sediment in E waters (rivers, lakes) and soil, mountain landscapes and ecosystems are secondary pollution.

Contamination of surface and condition of the earth and under the water. On the territory of the Republic of surface water are very important to the economy, while at the same time, the most vulnerable component of mym mountain landscapes and ecosystems tems to-rye rapidly changing under the influence of human activities. Fessional from the rational use of water resources, with environmentally safe storage of their quality depends on the sustainable and stable development of the economy, people's lives. The total water consumption of Noah is now part makes about $ 7 billion m3 per year, of which the share of industry accounts for about 4%, com proportion to the economy – more than 4% of rural households ho – almost 92%. The most dangerous factor tors, leading to depletion and degradation of surface tion, especially drinking water contamination are various chemi cal and biological substances. River in its upper reaches are characterized by generally weak mineralization. But in the mean of the river and downstream, flowing in the large-area industrial plants, near Mrs. votnovodcheskih complexes and localities have high anthropogenic impact due to the receipt of consequence in them with waste in the DAMI large of number of pollutants.

Currently, surface water (rivers, lakes) of the Republic dumped waste water of about 100 objects, water users, with a total relief of more than 900 million m3 per year. The volume of contaminated (including not enough eyes schennyh) waste is 0.85 million m3 per year, while in open waters without any treatment released 0.75 million m3 of wastewater containing hazardous substances Niemi is 10 times higher than established lennyh regulations. In rivers where the greatest contamination exceeding acceptable standards for oil products is observed (2-7 MAC), am moniynomu nitrogen (1-4), nitrate nitrogen (1 – 8), compounds of copper (2-11), zinc (2 – 9), hexavalent chromium (2-4), phenol (1-4), organic chemicals (1-2). The content of oxygen pa stvorimogo below normal levels observed in the cross-sections below the wastewater sewer Bishkek and Osh in years with low water year period. In areas of irrigated agriculture remains fixed from time to time the exact count of pesticides DCT. In the waters of industrial facilities Chui and Fergana valleys observed an intense circulation of harmful populations of enteroviruses (EV), hepatitis B virus, and rotavirus is the (PB). Bacteriological zag ryaznenie some open reservoirs exceeds the permitted limit of 10.

According to the results of systematic observations relevant services of the Ministry of Ecology and Emergency Situations, Ministry of Health, is more alarming is the ecological status of surface water and groundwater under the Chu Valley (Bishkek, Kara-Balta, industrial districts of the Tokmok) Ferghana valley tion (Osh, Jalal- Abad, Kadamjay, Aydarkenskogo industrial districts of the). In rivers: Chui (in the middle and lower h ty), Naryn (downstream), Alamyudyun, Chon-Kemin, Issyk-Ata, Kichi-Kemin, Ah-ra Buu, Kara gifts Tar Kurshab, Zhazy, Shahimar Dan and others systematically observed increased content equivalent of ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, compounds of copper, zinc, petroleum comrade, organic and other harmful substances, as well as the residual count pesticide DDT. Similar contamination found in the rivers flowing into Lake Issyk-Cal. High concentrations of copper, zinc, petroleum, nitrate nitrogen were observed in the rivers: Tup, Jyrgalan, Karakol, Jeti-Opoz, Chon Ak-Suu, as well as in the district of Cholpon-Ata. In May 1998, the river Barskon flowing into the lake of Issyk-Cal as a result of accidents fell in 1762 kg of sodium cyanide in a very dangerous poison to-Roe was carrying a car for Kumterskogo gold of the plant. For the first time the scale of our republic was public environmental emergency, as a result of to-cerned were contaminated with toxic and highly toxic substances: Lake Issyk-Cal, the waters of the river Barskon flowing from these channels, as well as arable land and gardens of the population of farms and villages Barskon Tamga Issyk-Kelskoy area.

Admission to the surface and ground water polluting substances of various organic substances, heavy metals, oil products, phenols and other hazardous substances are not satisfactory due to the (ineffective) treatment of urban municipal wastewater and sewage enterprises of meat and dairy, pi schevoy, local industry, leather and footwear, and agricultural manufacturing, trucking companies, etc.

According to the service of the analytical control of the Ministry of Ecology and Emergency situations tions, there are currently about 400 different sewage treatment plants and water treatment facilities with a total capacity of more than 300 million m3 per year, however, 60-70% of them are in poor technical Xia state research institutes. In addition, more than half the country HN small towns, large populated areas of Comrade, townships, many of the seasonally active and resorts on the shores of Lake Issyk-Cal does not have a centralized sewerage systems and treatment plants. As a result, annual household formation, household and industrial waste water nye water, amounting to more than 250 million m3, to-rye accumulate in absorbing or cesspools, and disposed of in the watershed territory tories or directly discharged into the waters nye objects. At the same polluted soil, water, flora and fauna of the poison, increased risk of bacterial contamination of the population. Another environmental problem associated with the depletion of surface water on the mountain landscapes and ecosystems, in Kyrgyzstan, stability parameters lyaetsya nuclear explosion process of reducing the area of ​​mountain glaciers. The intensity of the melting of mountain glaciers is increasing every year, resulting in our country could change the water content of surface runoff, water supply and water consumption. The main environmental threat to the use of water resources of the republic is consistently strong tendency to depletion and pollution of surface and under ground water occurring as a result of complex natural and man-plex reasons.

Pollution and condition of the soil. One of the main wealth of the republic nuclear explosion lyayutsya agricultural land Use a total area of ​​10547.2 is ryh-ha. Much of the reclaimed land is located in depressions and valleys (5% of the total area of ​​the country), where the bulk of the population and industrial capacity of the country. For these areas are characterized by high population density and active leniya anthropogenic load. The share of agricultural Production of gross domestic product (GDP) of the republic in an average year is 35-45% (for the last 10 years). Therefore, the existing use of land resources in the Soviet environmental problems are most pressing.

cultures.