Vegetation

Feb 06, 12 Vegetation

The complexity of the history of the earth's surface heterogeneity of Kyrgyzstan and the initial conditions of natural habitats of plants due to a variety of vegetation types Willy. Propagation of them across the state obeys a law of altitudinal zones.

On the territory of Kyrgyzstan, highlighted the following types of blowing vegetation of the desert, uplands nye xerophytes (tragakantniki), steppes, meadows, bushes, forests, saz, high kriofi you, rocks and plant communities kamenis tyh talus.

Deserts occupy a large area in the valleys and the foothills (500-1200 – 1300 m above sea level), syrt highlands (up to an altitude of 3400 m.) This is facilitated by a dry continental climate, the presence of rocky-gravelly spaces salinity. Soils are gray desert, light brown. Vegetation cover of deserts HYDRATED very thin. It is formed by perennial drought-resistant plants niyami mainly cryophilic GOVERNMENTAL and halophyte shrubs and shrubs, bitches kulentami, psammophytes, ephemera, and Efe meroidami. Of these ecological groups of plants in the deserts dominated by Efe and ephemeroids measures.

For floristic composition efemeridovaya vegetation is diverse, it is represented by 4000 species, mostly sitting. origin. Especially widespread IME UT swards of bulbous bluegrass, sedges tolstostolbikovoy, goose onions Burachek empty tynnogo, iksiliriona Tatar, Malcolm, saffron, arnebii, tulips, etc.

Ephemera and ephemeroids republic are of great pastoral significance. This is a major early spring grazing, and in some places – Spring grasslands.

In Kyrgyzstan, the following types of deserts: Artemisia, halophytic and efedrovye. From the desert formations of the largest area occupied by Artemisia, the least – mix high, and very little – efedrovye ny styni.

Sagebrush desert Chui, Talas, and Fergana valleys are confined mainly to low foothills at an altitude of 600 – 1000-1600 m above sea level, they are presented formations of the Ferghana wormwood and sex yni later. Formation of the wormwood Fergana tion are confined to low adyr east. Noah Fergana Mountains of late spring, summer and autumn plants. The composition of herbage of this formation are: eringium, kochia spread melting, bearded Hemostatic, Millennium ticipants, wheatgrass piliferous.

Community formation in the late sage urocheny to loops and low foothills. Wed di vegetation of this formation occur: Carex Turkestan, roofing, fire, Caucasus feather, kochia spreading, Velcro, and other blood kusy

In the Central Tenir Too formation of a white ground lyni to occupy the lowest height of absolutely desert areas, to-rye at higher altitudes are replaced by a form of wormwood lessingovidnoy tions.

The principal formations are empty or wormwood Central Tenir Too is the formation of the wormwood Tenir tooskoy rozotsvet kovoy and wormwood. If the formation of Artemisia Tenir tooskoy occupies lower altitudes, not rising above 3000 m, the formation of Artemisia rozotsvetkovoy focused on high altitudes (3000 m). Of all the form functions sagebrush desert sagebrush community po zotsvetkovoy differ unusually poor risticheskim flora composition, if the other sagebrush grass formations composed of 50-70 species, there are only 8-10 species of plants tions. Communities for Artemisia rozotsvetkovoy highlands of Central Tenir Too are typical, landscape, espe cially in the dry syrt spaces, giving the distinctive character of the vegetation.

In spring and early summer in the sagebrush desert valleys and foothills of the many ephemeral, blooming profusely poppy peacock, Roemer refracted, Turkestan sedge, Carex tolstostolbikovaya. By the fall bloom sage, cornflower, cousin. In the sagebrush desert highlands grow perennial shrubs – grated propagation kochia, winterfat gray sagebrush.

Halophytic desert spread by Nena adyr east. part of Turkestan, west. part of the Alai, sat. part of the Fergana ridges comrade, the terraces Chui and Talas valleys at an altitude of 700-1600 m above sea level considerably the space utilized for dry farming of seva. Soils are a complex of distinct species of gray soils. In the valleys and hollows in the fine-textured soils of strongly developed desert with saline obili eat thistle, simpegmy, Réaumur, bringing on tashnika, evrotsii and cook-pitch. Formation of a l I n of a confined to rocky-gravelly, clay grained soils. For the characteristic halophytic desert thorns different halophytes, xerophytes, in not a significant number ve – ephemera and efemeroi Au. The floristic composition is poor and odnoobra zen. Common types are: mix, Potashnik, tselnolistnik, winterfat gray.

More percentage of soil salinity are areas where widespread formation of n and tashnika anabasis. Of all the formations of halophytic desert formation simpegmy Regel has the most widespread.

  1. Formation Réaumur Zhungar characteristic of river terraces p. Narin and with the currents. Formed on the clay, saline soils serozemovidnyh small patches.
  2. Edificator Réaumur Zhungar is typical of xerophytic shrubs. Satellites are the nicknames of Artemisia Tenir tooskaya, to vyl Caucasian, kochia, winterfat, and others, occasionally ephemeroids: Turkestan sedge, bluegrass Luco mary.

The formation of a large white quinoa has spread. Its typical mass you focus on the river terraces in the lower reaches of the river. Ala-Buka and the foothills Makmal-Too, etc. in the field of small plots. In the Central Tenir Too white quinoa – a long-term highly branched polukustar nickname up to 50 cm floristic composition is poor, the projective cover of 15-20%.

Formations of winterfat or e in the p and q of the gray and common in the Central Tenir Too independent cenoses form seldom, often as a component of distinct desert communities, large areas are not occupied, caught in small patches. Soils beneath the clay. Vegetation is sparse on the roof. Between the shrubs winterfat izrastayut feather of a Caucasian, zaytsegub ploskokolyuchy, Potashnik, tarragon white ground, sim pegma, and others brought

Despite the many formations, and the granting of halophytic desert are the greatest, and the propagation of economic importance only simpegmy formation, Kalidium and Suaeda. Halophytic desert used as winter pastures tion.

Efedrovye desert, compared with sagebrush and saltwort, occupy a small area. They grow on rocky outcrops and desert deserts Inside it Tenir Too, in the west. part of the basin of Lake Issyk-Cal, for sowing. Ridge Kyrgyzskogo Ala-Too in the Alai Valley. Efedrovye desert miruyutsya form of stony-gravelly slopes of the mountains on the screes, cliffs at an altitude of 2000-2300 m above sea level. Represented by two formations in E: horsetail ephedra and ephedra average. These formations do not form a large area, meetings chayutsya small patches of desert GOVERNMENTAL other communities. Ephedra in the basin of Lake Issyk-Cal creates a clean community, to-ryh the covering is in the range 50-70%. Typical components efedrovyh formations are zaytsegub ploskochashechny, Karagan, Roemer, astragel Alpine, and others Eremurus vye Desert Ephedra used as pastures, though their productivity is low. Much more important is ephedra as a medicinal plants tion containing ephedrine.

Desert vegetation is used as a ve-Senna fall and winter pastures. Large areas of deserts utilized for agriculture.

Highland xerophytes (tragakantniki). Trag Kant found among the vegetation of deserts, steppes on stony-gravelly tories west territory. parts of the West Tenir Too skogo Alai Range, Ketmen Tebenskoy-basin, basin rr.Chon-Kemin, Kalb at an altitude of 2500 – 2700 (3000) m

Type of mountain xerophytes represented by the following formations: akantolimona ala toosko th, Tenir tooskogo, Korolkova, pillows bindweed tragacanth, kolyuchelistnika, aster gelov, sainfoin.

The basis of the stand up tragakantnikov spherical cushion, height-to ryh lyaet 20-30 cm of the floristic composition of the sky Gat, in its composition, there are: sage, zmeego deft, feather, otostegii, zizifory, Caragana, etc.

The steppes are widespread throughout the country (700-2000-3000 m above sea level).

By the nature of vegetation structure, flora risticheskomu composition, the rhythm of the meeting are sitting. sod (melkodernovinnye) and savannoide or sub-tropical south. steppe.

Northern sod typical steppe of Central Tenir Too, the cat than half of Lake Issyk-Cal, Kyrgyzskogo Ala-Too, Kichi-Kemin, Chon-Kemin, Talas Ala-Too, Alai and Chatkal ranges. Of these, the wide distribution and importance fescue steppe, called steppe betege from the furrowed fescue at a height of 1000-2000 m above sea level in the foothills Kyrgyzskogo and Talas Ala-Too. Soil beneath a light brown. Herbage consists of a diverse GOVERNMENTAL environmental groups in early spring ephemerals grow up here and ephemeroids: saffron, gu siny onion, spring, tulips, sedges, etc. In addition to the herbage of these plants are found feather hairy, ayaniya, sagebrush, wheatgrass, s syanitsa etc.

For the areas gravelly Kochkor Zhumgalskoy and valleys characteristic of the feather grass feather grass steppes of the Caucasus and feather hair-worm (tyren). Herbage presented views of the nature GOVERNMENTAL to sagebrush deserts. The upper edge of particle distribution at an altitude of 3000 – 3800 m fescue and feather grass steppes are changing the steppes of Krylov fescue and oat particle in high places, and in some p-tries feather grass steppes of Stipa kyrgyzskogo tion and sky.

In the zone of contact with the subalpine belt of mountains, at altitudes above 3,000 m high mountain districts of the country (Central Tenir Too Lovina Cat Lake. Issyk-Cal) turf occupied by highland steppes of ovsetsa, ptilyagros yew puccinellia. The pool pp. Ak-Sai, Myudyuryum, Chatyr-Cal at a height of 3000 – 3860 m above sea level, common high kogornye barley, belomyatlikovye steppe. Aneurolepidium steppes occur in the watersheds of the rivers Kara Koyun, Arp, Alabuga at Bay Beach ridges-Too-Too Jaman. Formed a high-steppe uplands rnye, river terraces, slopes. Alpine steppe soil, such as chestnut porridge. In fescue herbage predominate s syanitsa, ovsets, cinquefoil, Oxytropis, Wei nickname Cobresia, etc. In a number of ridges in the valleys and foothills of the common chiyniki ences tyaschego Bles. Most of them have already been plowed, but in some places still remain large areas of Chiev krupnodernovinnyh steppes.

Southern subtropical (shroud novidnye) steppes are widely distributed in south-western. part of the country – at adyr and low mountains of Turkestan, Chatkal, Alay ranges, the ranges Kyrgyzskogo Ala-Too and Talas Ala-Too in the basin of Lake Issyk-Cal. In the Central Tenir Too Southern. degree pi occupy a very small area. Representation of Lena wheatgrass, saryndyzovymi, borodachevy E, and ferulic prangosovymi steppes. The southern steppes, except borodachevnikov are ephemeral in nature, some of them very heavily auto dry up. Wheatgrass steppe zone occupied by the foothills of the Turkestan, Alai skogo, Fergana, Chatkal ranges, Rem men-thee-Too ranges Suusamyr, Kyrgyzskogo Ala-Too at an altitude of 700-2000 m above sea level. Dominated by wheatgrass piliferous, places Noe people call it nargyya Chop Chop ak. In sainfoin herbage predominates dye vy, Scaliger Alai, fire, bluegrass Luco mary, astragalus, etc. Saryndyzovye steppes are widespread in the eastern foothills. part of the Alai Range, the slopes of low mountains Chatkal, Fergana ridges on the ridges Uzun Akmat, Suusamyr Too, Am-Oynok, boiler fault Ketmen-You, Jalal-Abad, in the foothills of the ridge Kirghiz Ala-up basin. Issyk-Ata. Saryndyzniki sometimes form quite dense communities. Small arrays izre zhennye thickets saryndyza met Xia on the foothills of the Talas Ala-Too, Boom in the valley of Chu, in the basin. Minkush r.Ke Kemer and Naryn. In the south of Kyr camp located on the steppe saryndyzovye you saute 1000-2500 m in the Chu Valley – 700 – 1600 m above sea level. In the bluegrass herbage dominated piliferous, saryndyz, chii, ska biosis, barley, sedge, sainfoin, etc.

Borodachevye steppes are widespread in the foothills of Fergana, Chatkal, Talas and Kyrgyzskogo of ridges in the basin of Lake Issyk-Cal, in-Toguz Toroskom, Ak-Talin, Zhumgalskom p-tries. Belt borodachevyh steppes varies from 700-3000 m (1000-2200 m) above sea level. Soils – the typical gray soils, light brown. The bearded man in a number of local populations of p-electrons is called Kyzyl-on. In addition to herbage bearded krovoostanavli colliding prevail: figwort perovskite-sheeted, tarragon finely, big elecampane, kopeck coins, Bermuda grass, cornflower, are the Rescue of shrubs: cherry, kurchavka, gul-Taymiyah and others

Trangosovye and ferulic south. distributed on the southern steppes. slopes of the Fergana and Chatkal skogo ridges, valley basin Ketmen-You, on the northern. slope of the Alai Range.

Edificators in these steppes are: fe Roula odorous, ferule Ieshko, ferule sheep, prangos food, prangos Lipsky, finely Gorichev nickname. They are scattered in groups or individual plants in the degree pyah as borodachevniki and wheatgrass steppe.

The grass cover there are the same types as in wheatgrass and borodachevyh steppes, and the names but: big elecampane, azure teasel, scabious, alfalfa, wheatgrass, bearded fescue under marennik, fire, etc.

For these steppes are rarely scattered pistachio, almond bushes, spirea and rose hips.

In forage plants degree drink is used as a spring, summer and winter pastures tion.

The Barrens is now almost all raspaha HN. Anthropogenic impact (plowing and sowing of crops, over-grazing is the velocity, etc.) have led to degradation of the steppe community societies, and in some regions of the steppe Turn were in man-made desert.

Grasslands in the country compared to the steppes are less common and are located in mountainous areas at elevations from 1,500 to 2,500-3,000 meters above sea level. In Kyrgyzstan, are distinguished: low kogornye names-valley, alpine-valley, tall, subalpine and alpine environments netravnye low-grass meadows.

Low-e-e names of the molting meadows – lowland meadows, located in river valleys gayutsya annually flooded've sennimi waters, to bring on-rye meadow mud, rich in organic matter. The soil for the tidal meadows is very fertile.

Floodplain meadows are of terrestrial reed, sedge Zhungar, barley, short-spinous, foxtail Zhungar.

These meadows do not occupy large areas and form a small number of communities. Use Xia as grasslands and to a lesser extent, as pastures.

Alpine meadow-valley atmospheric moisture are three types: tall, subalpine and alpine srednetravnymi E low-grass meadows. Vysokotrav nye meadows on mountain slopes prevalent tries, are formed near the forest, forest field tries, scrublands at an altitude of 1500-2700 m above sea level.

If the North Tenir Too, especially in the Ming Ke valley, Kirghiz, Talas ridges max tall grasslands are landscaped, the Central Tenir Too, they found no large arrays. Soil beneath them – mountains nye black soil prairie. The most pronounced mi tall grassland formations are formations of Kentucky blue grass, ovsetsa pubescent, cocksfoot, ligulyarii Thomson, p. garskoy jung, p. alpine, mountaineer tanning, credit stovnika Zhungar.

The floristic composition of tall grassland is rich and varied. In addition to these plants are found in the stand tions brome, couch grass, Kentucky bluegrass, vetch thin-sheeted, the rank of Gmelin, white clover, n early hour straight, the bell-piece, aconite garsky jung, rue small, ordinary vennaya oregano, catnip, bedstraw, betonika and others

Subalpine meadows srednetravnye widespread throughout the country at an altitude of 2500-3000 m above sea level. There are the following types of subalpine lu gov: flemisa gorolyubivogo, rock geranium, iris korotkotrubchatogo, anemones stretched; rejected cuff-haired, globe-Altaic; chernopurpurovogo onion, forget-me-scented; bistort beautiful.

Vegetation of subalpine meadows, dense vegetation, the covering surface is 85 – 90%. For floristic composition is very rich and varied. Dicotyledonous forbs dominate over grasses. Herbage grasses: Timo feevka alpine meadow fescue, ovsets pubescent; of beans – white clover, al tragal Alpine, Hedysarum Kirghiz, of herbs – pungent buttercup, rue, wild gvoz, sorrel, bluebell, sedges and other uzkoplodnaya

Low-grass meadows, alpine developed at an altitude of 3000 m above sea level and is widely distributed throughout the country. Formations are represented: from the alpine skogo bluegrass, sedges round, uzkoplodnoy, chernotsvet kovoy; Cobresia lozhnovolosistoy. In addition to the dominant species of the ground in the stand is dominated by Semenov onion, rejected cuff of losistaya, ligulyariya alpine edelweiss, dandelion, melkolepestnik orange, mountain munching, primroses, etc. nezabudochnik