Forest and forest in the mountains

Feb 16, 12 Forest and forest in the mountains

Forest and forest in the mountains

A. Status of the issue. Problem.

The total land area of ​​the State Forest Fund as at 01.01.1998 is 3163.2 thousand hectares, the Forested area – 849.5 thousand hectares, which is – 4.25% of the total area. The main owner of the forest is the State Agency for Forestry under the Government of the Republic, in charge of the 2833.6 thousand hectares of forest land, 14.2% of the total area, including the wooded area of ​​769.5 hectares. The reserve fund, entered in the register of forest fund of 236.2 thousand hectares, forest area – 20.3 thousand ha. Forest, located in the Office of the President, is 3.6 ha, including forest area of ​​1.3 hectares Former Forest Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources has 66.6 ha, including forest area – 42.6 thousand ha Forests occupy a former collective 23 thousand hectares, including the wooded area of ​​-13.6 ha.

Forests – national wealth Kyrgyzskoy Republic. They are state property and, despite a small area, play an important role in the economy and improving the environment. Forests store-and gene pool diversity of species and forms of trees and shrubs, flora and fauna of forests of Kyrgyzstan have great soil protection, water protection, and preventing value. Significantly increased in recent years anthropogenic impact, expressed as uncontrolled grazing, unauthorized felling and firewood, and the plowing of forest land for agricultural purposes, and others, has caused significant damage to forests, resulting in a forest area was reduced compared to the year 1930 by a third .

In many places, formed of low density plantings, high density survived only in remote locations of some canyons. Already revealed a number of forest areas that are in distress, where forests have lost their biological activity. There are new challenges for the conservation and sustainability of forests, their rational use, reproduction, overcoming the contradictions between forest management on the one hand and ecology on the other.

In connection with the foregoing, the challenge now for sustainable forest management is of paramount importance. Conservation and reproduction of forest resources is a matter of strategic importance. The revival of forestry requires a new national policy, the new Concept of Forestry Development.

Necessary to achieve several important and complementary objectives:

sustainable development of forestry;

- Improvement of the organization of forestry;

- Involvement of local people and forest users in the development of forestry;

- The development of private business relationships to forestry;

It shall be the following strategic directions:

A. ensure the conservation of all forests in the country;

definition of technical standards for sustainable forest management, harvesting and planting;

economic reform forestry;

stimulating private activity;

Development of lease of state forests;

rationalization of the structure of the Forest Service;

create an effective system of financing of forestry.

Two. Specially Protected Areas

Specially protected forest areas form a natural-reserve fund Kyrgyzskoy Republic, which is under special state protection. These include the protection of forests in different categories: national parks, state natural national parks, wildlife sanctuaries complex, forest reserves. In forests are hunting and state sanctuaries.

The total area of ​​all protected areas of nature reserve fund of the Republic of 858.93 hectares or 4.3% of its territory.

Three. The species composition of forests

Forests are Kyrgyzskoy of four main groups of tree species – pine, hardwood, softwood and other (walnut orchard). Among the coniferous juniper forests predominate, followed by Tien Shan spruce, Red Book of Kyrgyzskoy, fir Semenova, introduced pine and larch. The total area of ​​coniferous forests is 280.1 hectares Hardwood species are ash, maple, acacia, elm. The area of ​​hardwood small – only 34.4 hectares of which is dominated by maple – 28.3 hectares

Softwood trees are birch, aspen, poplar and willow tree. Their total area-14, 1 ha

In the group of other species (walnut-fruit) predominates walnut (33.3 thousand hectares, in addition of about 2 hectares of walnut in the Sary-Chelek and Besh-Aral goszapovednikah), followed by pistachio, apple, almonds, apricots , mountain ash, plum (plum), hawthorn and other small-fruited species. Total fruit and nut – 98.3 hectares

Important role in the protection of mountain slopes in the country are shrubs, they are: rose, spirea, honeysuckle, Aflatuni, willow scrub, and juniper (archa) creeping, hawthorn, ekzohorda and other shrubs. In the forests of the Republic of shrubs grow in the area of ​​342.6 hectares

It should be noted that compared to light in the forest in 1993 there was a change of age structure, increased the number of young stands at 1.4% and decreased the number of mature and overmature stands.

A large area of ​​mature and overmature conifers occupy 838 hectares, 49.2%, and especially the spruce plantation – 52 hectares, including 19.5 hectares over- A juniper – 84.8 thousand ha, accounting for 51.2% of the total area of

forests. In the walnut-fruit forests and other mature and overmature stands occupy 27 hectares, or 27.4%, including walnuts – on the area of ​​33.3 hectares of mature and overmature stands occupy 16.7 thousand ha, ie is 50.1%.

Before foresters Kyrgyzskoy of the primary task is to increase the area of ​​young trees that currently exists -10.1% to 20% and reduce the percentage of mature and over (45.3%). This event should be realized conduct silvicultural operations, harvesting of old trees, reforestation and sanitary felling.

The need for cutting is: lighting and cleaning – 0.36 ha, thinning – 0.53 hectares, globe – 0.14 hectares, sanitary felling – 1.03 hectares, and forest regeneration cuttings -1.6 thousand . ha. Total required conduct of logging in the area of ​​4.431 hectares with an average sample of -11 m 3 per 1 hectare per year.

4. Spruce forests of the Tien Shan

Alpine spruce forests are the main Kyrgyzskoy of forest-forming species – spruce Tien Shan (12.7% of the total forest area). Major tracts of spruce forests are concentrated in the northern part of the slopes of mountains bordering the lake Issyk-Kul and Naryn River Basin. Small arrays of Tien Shan spruce are Talas Kirghiz and ridges. In the south, in Osh and Jalal-Abad, spruce forests there is only 13.2 hectares The most southern Tien Shan spruce arrays are spruce forests on the ridge in the upper Transalai Tar rivers and Kara-Yining.

In the zone of spruce forests grow in the Red Book Kyrgyzskoy of Semenov fir (3.4 ha). Here we grow introduced species: birch, pine, larch, and some other exotics.

Occupying a small space, spruce forests are of great national economic and environmental value. Located on the steep slopes of mountain ranges, they reduce erosion, protect the soil than from the destructive action of debris flows, regulate the regime of mountain rivers, making it more uniform, and translate into subsurface runoff.

Along with great soil and water checks the value of our mountain spruce forests, which are to be considered essential in the management of their farms, a significant role is played by them in providing the economy with wood.

Spruce forest – a place for the location of resorts, sanatoriums, rest homes and tourist centers. And here, for recreational use and protection of forests, organized by state national natural parks: Karakol, Kara Shoro, Besh-Tash, Chon-Kemin and Ala-Archa. In order to protect the complex nature of all the territory occupied by spruce forests, are two of the reserve – and the Naryn-Karatal Zhapryksky.

The main objective of forestry in spruce forests is to strengthen and increase their productivity. In the whole area of ​​spruce forests should begin a systematic replacement of mature, overmature, and thinned by felling trees (with a full 0.3 and below), spruce forest cultures of the Tien Shan and in the lower part of the belt-introduced species that have passed the test in this zone.

Five. Juniper forests

The most important in the conservation of juniper forests have tree and of dwarf forms. Juniper forests, including the form of dwarf occupy 264.3 thousand ha or 31.1% of forests. On the territory of the Republic of 5 species of juniper grow, but it is the most common tree shape – Zeravshan juniper, juniper and juniper hemispherical Turkestan. Juniper forests, situated on the steep slopes of the mountains, carry a large water regulation and water guarding role, protect the soil from erosion and counteract the formation of debris flows. Archa in their biological characteristics are long-lived (some specimens reach the age of about 1000 years). This creates a natural wonder aesthetic decoration of a mountain landscape, which is the resting place for the public, where necessary to build sanatoria, rest homes, tourist camps. Realizing the high aesthetic value of juniper forests in order to recreational use in the area of ​​organized Nookat State Natural National Park, Kyr-Ata in the area 11,172 ha.

Restoration of juniper forests – a difficult process. Growing seedlings in nurseries last 3-4 years, and the subsequent care of them on the silvicultural area requires another 10-15 years. The main obstacle to conservation of juniper forests is, above all, the activities of people living in the forest zone. Consumer attitude of people is accompanied by a deterioration of the juniper forests. In this regard, we need a collection of uterine-planting of the most valuable forms to save and later use them in breeding work. Should immediately start work on selection in natural stands of commercially valuable intraspecific forms of juniper. This will identify the major genotypes and save valuable populations of juniper, where they still exist, use them for bookmarks permanent and temporary seed planting, and thereby contribute to the restoration of degraded natural genetic structure of the woodlands of juniper. In the juniper forests may allocate specific uterine identified or commercial seed planting, and after the tests can retrain their offspring in the elite group. Reserves should also be a selection of the genetic fund of juniper with very valuable biological properties, they must be registered in the list of seed planting and harvesting to provide seeds, saving them from the adverse effects and safety.

In the future, it is advisable to use the clone selection and establishment of plantations of grafted juniper to obtain high-quality planting material and need to use self-sowing, where possible, from seed planting. The general direction of forestry in the juniper forests, above all, should be aimed at increasing the productivity of forest plantations of low productivity reconstruction by artificial means using high-quality large-sized seed juniper grown in nurseries with closed root system, as well as the introduction of fast-growing species on eroded open spaces.

6. Walnut-fruit forests

Among the forests of our country one of the most valuable is an array of unique walnut-fruit forests, located in the Jalal-Abad and Osh in western and southwestern slopes of the Fergana and Chatkal ranges mountain range of Tien Shan. This rare beautiful corner of our country is a kind of a natural botanical garden, where tens of thousands of hectares of valuable species grow trees and shrubs. Of the 182 representatives are growing trees and shrubs are the most valuable walnut, pistachio, almond, pear, apple, wild plum variety of forms

(Plum), hawthorn, barberry, cherry-magalebka, different kinds of rose hips. At an altitude of 1,800 meters above sea level grow coniferous forests of spruce Schrenk, juniper tree, and in the Red Book Kyrgyzskoy of Semenov fir.

The size of the occupied territory, and the beauty of the walnut-fruit forests of Jalal-Abad and Osh regions are unique in the world.

In the area of ​​walnut-fruit forests inhabited by numerous representatives of the fauna: deer, bear, wild boar, snow leopard, ibex, lynx, porcupine, wolf, fox, hare, groundhog, mnogzhestvo of game and songbirds. Deep Lake (Sarah Chelek, Kyla Kol, Kara-Kul) and flowing of the river Kara-Ungur, Narin Osman settled scaly and Marina.

In the walnut-fruit forests are inhabited by the representatives listed in the Red Book Kyrgyzskoy Republic. Of the animals: Tien Shan brown bear, snow leopard, Pallas' cat, Tien Shan mountain sheep, marmot marmot, red wolf, the Central Asian otter, of birds zmeed, bearded Kumai, Balaban, Asiatic black dove.

Over-harvesting of high-quality walnut led to the depletion and a decrease in the area of ​​walnut-fruit forests.

Currently, work is underway to restore the walnut-fruit forests. Every year in the forests planted about 1,100 hectares of forest fruit and nut crops.

It is known that in the walnut-fruit forests dominated by old and over trees, which are subject to change. To that end, here is carried out sanitation and thinning, clearing of forest litter vnelesosechnoy. Al, 1962, in walnut-fruit forests are conducted comprehensive logging, developed and recommended Lesproekt.

To restore the walnut-fruit forests of the republic must create favorable conditions. To ensure the return of lands previously transferred to the long-term use of agricultural enterprises in the state forest Delete from long-term use of forest land to forest enterprises, and is fully entitled to dispose of their lands.

7. Floodplain forests

In Kyrgyzskoy Republic in the mountainous areas are floodplain forests along floodplains and banks of large rivers Naryn, Chu, Tup, Talas, Susamyr, Jergalan, Iasi, and in many smaller rivers. These riparian forests usually perform the function. The species composition of floodplain forests depends on adaptation to environmental conditions and the competitive interactions of trees and shrubs. In the mountains, on the banks, floodplains and deltas of rivers, tree and shrub vegetation grows in the form of intermittent narrow strips of forest, often forms the riparian forests of poplar and black Asiatic poplar, willow, white willow gray, narrow-leaved Elaeagnus, tamarisk, buckthorn, elm and poplar forest .

In general, the floodplain forests dominated by mixed stands of the republic, often because of human impacts converted into low-and srednepolnotnye plantings. This is due mainly to intensive unauthorized felling. Here is an intensive cattle grazing, there is damage to stands of insect pests and fungal diseases.

The ratio of people to the floodplain forest remains today not serious, although they do accumulative, erosion, klimatopreobrazuyuschuyu role, protect water from pollution, support vysokovodnost rivers, contribute to an increase in groundwater recharge, translating into subsurface runoff, protect riverbanks from degradation, accumulate eluvium in floodplains, improving conditions for fish habitat and animals.

Riparian forests protect agricultural land in flood plains of sand drift and increase their productivity, create and stabilize the favorable conditions for water use and water consumption.

Understanding the importance of riparian forests in the national economy and how the environmental, forest management regime in the floodplain forests should be directed, first and foremost, to protect against unauthorized felling, fires. Particular attention should be paid to the fight against pests and diseases, thereby increasing their protective role and productivity. These activities will affect the purity of drinking water, lack of which is increasing every year, especially in the republics of Central Asia.

Eight. Non-wood forest products

On the slopes of the mountains, among the hayfields and pastures, grow medicinal and technical plants required for the pharmaceutical industry. Here there are: Ephedra horsetail, thyme, motherwort, oregano, horsetail and many others.

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Materials prepared by:

Nat.