Environmental aspects of the development of the republic

Mar 03, 12 Environmental aspects of the development of the republic

Environmental aspects of the development of the republic

A. Ecology and land use. Problem.

The most dangerous factors leading to land degradation – one of the vital resources of the republic, are erosion, destruction of soil structure, salinity, flooding and waterlogging, loss of humus, contamination of chemicals.

With increasing population and the systematic alienation of land for nonagricultural purposes the size of arable land per inhabitant of the republic over the past 20 years has decreased from 0.43 to 0.3 ha, including irrigated – from 0.27 to 0.21 ha. By 2030, projected, respectively, 0.18 and 0.1 ha. In the mountain areas deforestation, plowing of soil by livestock grazing and handling on the slopes of the mountains led to rapid destruction of the soil, the formation of debris flows, landslides and avalanches, siltation of water bodies products erosive destruction of soils and subsoils.

In recent decades, there was a decrease in arable land and perennial plants as a result of the transformation of productive land in less valuable land. At the present time is subject to erosion 5302.1 thousand hectares or 51% of agricultural land, including arable land – 968 hectares, pastures – 4544.8 thousand hectares, and hayfields – 87.1 thousand ha. Large areas of farmland in poor condition. As a result of an inventory of land out of circulation for the past five years, retired eight thousand hectares of irrigated land.

From 1985 to 1990 increased the area of ​​saline land with 666.3 to 1170.3 thousand ha, waterlogged from 28.9 to 89.2 thousand hectares, with a stony 2397.4 3808.8 thousand ha up, diflyatsionno dangerous with 616 , 2 to 5475.3 thousand hectares. Lack of accounting for changes in land quality in recent years does not allow for analysis of factors affecting the fertility of the land, but given that in this decade, almost no funds were allocated for reclamation activities, you can make the assumption that water logging, salinity and osolontsovyvanie soil erosion in heavily used areas and slopes are progressing. Learn more about SSL Certificate.

The process of losing the main indicator of fertility – humus as a result of removal of erosion and make the necessary doses of organic fertilizers. Removal of the humus horizon of the arable plants ranged from 20 to 45%. Loss of crops by varying degrees of soil degradation on the grass was 20 to 80% of grain from 15 to 50%. Poor quality of design and construction of irrigation facilities and networks, the excess of the norms of irrigation on irrigated land has caused the erosion of irrigation, which is subject to 74.2 thousand hectares of arable land.

The area of ​​meadow and meadow-steppe zones located in the most favorable climatic conditions, 60-90% covered with weeds, poisonous vegetation, pastures zakustareno -1311.3 thousand hectares (14.4%) and grasslands -18.2 thou . Ha (11.4%), which led to a drop in pasture productivity by 4 times. In the distant and remote pastures began their natural regeneration, but the degradation of short-range continues to grow. Part of the low productivity of pastures reclassified as a reserve, and the remaining 3.6 million hectares of distant do not use that positively affected their condition. At the same time, 2.7 million hectares of village and other heavily used pastures are overloaded, as the peasants do not have the means to transport livestock to remote, especially the distant pastures.

Neglecting the organization of the territory of the principles of erosion in the reform of collective and state farms, where the size of a single agricultural land use decreased by about a hundred times, lays the foundation for the ongoing development of soil erosion. The main factors of influence on the soil conditions are man-made factors. Environmental risk is that the recovery of the soil in the mountain areas is very slow, and the eroded soil is hard retrievable. Thus, in the 21st century Kyrgyzskoy Republic of the estimated cost to address land use: land degradation due to steady on the agenda may be a question of acute food independence.

Ways to solve the environmental problems of land use:

- Maintenance of a land inventory and state registration of rights to land use,

- The fight against salinity

- Anti-erosion measures

-The use of modern agricultural practices that preserve soil fertility,

- Reclamation of disturbed lands (sowing legumes, band application of herbicides, spraying pesticides, etc.)

- Liquidation of wells.

- Executive Association:

- State Agency for Forestry

- Ministry of Environment,

- Agriculture and Water Resources,

- Local, state administration,

  1. - Agricultural Academy,
  2. - Ministry of Transport,

- GAO Kyrgyzkomurholding

- JSC Kyrgyzneftegaz.

Two. Radioactive waste and pollution status issue. Problems

A) The radiation situation in the republic is caused by natural factors and the activities of mining and processing raw materials containing natural radionuclides. After the closure of mining and metallurgical enterprises remains a large amount of tailings and waste dumps. These tailings are located mostly near the settlements and pose a threat of displacement and the creation of emergency situations. Some of them are located within the settlements. Some dumps are located along the surface water that may pose a threat to erosion, especially during heavy precipitation and mudflows.

A significant environmental threat to the Republic of Kyrgyzskoy are mining wastes. On the territory of the republic more than 130 such objects, the volume of waste stored exceeds 620 million cubic meters. m and 1950 m footprint. Tailings are the greatest threat of radioactive waste. To a greater or lesser degree of radioactive contamination have been the territory of about 6 hectares. Unfavorable state of the tailings in the Kaji settlements Sai, Min-Kush, Shekaftar, Kara-Balta, Kyzyl-Jar, etc.

The most unsatisfactory state of the group of tailings in the region of Mailuu-Suu, namely alluvial tailings № 3,5,7, located in the floodplain of the river Mailuu-Suu, and the largest bulk tailings type number 16. A significant concern is the state of tailings in the non-ferrous metallurgy Sumsar, Kane, Khaidarkan Kadamjai, Ak-TYuZe Erosion of tailings and other number 1 in Sumsar created a threat to the villagers and villages located downstream Sumsar. The content of cadmium in the river exceeds the MCL of 320 times. The results of the possible environmental disasters can be extreme, with coverage of the territories of Uzbekistan, the Aral Sea basin.

B) Organic creates an unfavorable environment storage of household waste. Currently, the country has 52 landfill waste with a total area of ​​210 hectares, which leaves more than 1.2 million cubic meters. meters of waste (excluding waste Bishkek), processing of which is practically absent.

B) is of great concern the technical state of major hydraulic structures, especially reservoirs, which are in seismically active areas, can cause natural environmental disasters.

D) The country has more than 50 sites that use in the production of potent toxins, including 18 industrial projects assigned to the category of chemically hazardous, within which people live, as well as the location of economic agents is associated with the risk of defeat in the event of an accident on site. The most difficult chemical environment can arise from accidents in the Kara-Balta, Kirghiz (pgt. Orlovka) mining and metallurgical plants, mining and mineral processing plants and other large objects.

Ways of solving problems:

- Monitoring of background radiation.

- Carrying out rehabilitation work on the storage of hazardous waste, mining waste dumps and tailings.

- Disposal of waste.

- Construction of ash disposal.

- Research and development activities on recycling and solid waste.

The executive of the organization:

- Ministry of Environment,

- Kara-Balta Mining Plant,

- National Academy of Sciences, MOE,

- Department of Architecture and Construction

- Institute of Chemical Technology,

- Ministry of Agriculture and Water CD

- Ministry of Health of the KR,

- GorSES.

Three. Biodiversity and ecology. Problem.

The conservation of biological biodiversity as a basis, the very essence of the biosphere, which provides a biological basis of life, as the repository of genetic material of animal and vegetable world – a permanent goal and task of the state. Kyrgyzskaya Republic is a unique place in Central Asia, the concentration of wild animals and plants. There are more than 500 species of vertebrates, including 83 species of mammals, 368 species of birds, 28 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 75 species of fish, 3,000 species of insects, there are over 4,500 species of higher plants. Of the 4,500 species of plants 300 species of wild are rare and are threatened with extinction, of which 125 species – endemic, 200 species of valuable medicinal plants. The Red Book of Kyrgyzskoy included 71 species of plants, 32 species of birds, 3 species of reptiles, 2 species of fish, 19 species of insects, 13 species of mammals.

In order to maintain biological diversity Kyrgyzskoy of a network of specially protected territories with total area of ​​672.9 thousand hectares or 3.3% of the territory of the republic. This is clearly not enough. During the period 1920-1970 in the republic was destroyed 50% of the forest, and is currently forested areas make up 4.2% of the territory.

Among the large species diversity of forest vegetation in relict and endemic species. In the red book Kyrgyzskoy Republic recorded 19 species of trees and shrubs. And such as walnut, and buckthorn, are under special state protection Juniper forests and woodlands are located in the south, mainly in the Alai and Turkestan ranges. All species of juniper, situated on steep slopes in the zone of groundwater, water regulation, and perform a large water-security role, protect the soil from erosion and counteract the formation of debris flows, bringing a huge disaster and destruction. However, the widespread use of juniper wood in my life and way of life of the population, unsystematic felling and uncontrolled grazing, there are no rules for use of forests in the past, forest fires over the centuries and generations of people, led to a sharp reduction in juniper forests and woodlands education, in Kyrgyzskoy Republic and in the whole of Central Asia.

Difficult economic situation in the transition period increased the human impact on forests. Unauthorized felling, uncontrolled grazing leads to degradation of soil and vegetation, detrimental impact on the natural regeneration, leading to a reduction in forest area. Woods partially satisfy the demand in wood and other forest products, growing on the slopes of the mountains, prevent the formation of debris flows, landslides, avalanches and other catastrophic events, regulate water flow in rivers.

Clearly the trend of aging forests. The aging process is faster than reforestation, and is already mature and old growth forests make up 49.9% or 350.3 thousand hectares of the total forest area. Old growth forests are a major focus of destruction by pests and diseases. Failure to timely forest protection measures could lead to widespread dissemination of foci, which may take catastrophic proportions. Under this threat, there are also unique for its natural reserves of relict nut forests.

Ways to solve the environmental problems of biodiversity.

- Creation of new public parks.

- Increase the area of ​​renewable natural forests.

- Bookmark willow plantations.

- The reproduction of fish stocks.

Forecast of natural ecosystems and rare endangered species.

- Development of compensatory measures.

- Selection and genetic inventories of plantations and the creation of a database on biodiversity.

- Create a collection of genetic crops, as well as environmentally friendly bacterial preparations to protect plants from pests.

The executive of the organization:

- Ministry of Environment,

- Goslesagentstvo,

- Fish factory,

- Biology and Soil Institute HAH KP,

- Local self-government.

4. Water resources and the environment. Problems

Renewable supplies of water – a strategic, vital natural resources of the republic, having interstate significance. With its large reserves (about 50 billion cubic meters per year of surface runoff and 13 billion cubic meters. Meters per year of groundwater, about 1745 billion cubic meters of water in lakes and 650 billion cu m. Fresh water in glaciers) , the country uses for its own needs only 12 to 17% of groundwater and surface water. Thus the total loss due to imperfect irrigation systems, use of intensive methods of irrigation and other causes account for about 23%.

Water Kyrgyzskoy Republic is made up of surface water and groundwater, as well as water storage in large lakes and alpine glaciers. Water resources are one of the most important and at the same time, the most vulnerable components of the environment that is fast changing under the influence of human activities. From the management of these resources, the preservation of their good quality depends on the economic and environmental well-being of the population.

Sustained process of deglaciation, the intensity of which increases and produces a change in water content and surface runoff. According to forecasts of area of ​​glaciers in the country by the year 2025 will be reduced on average by 30-40%, which would reduce water availability by 25-35%. The most dangerous factor leading to the depletion and degradation of water resources, and especially drinking water – a strategic resource – is the pollution of various chemical and organic substances. Due to the decline in production volume of wastewater discharge for the period from 1990 to 1995. almost halved in 1995 amounted to 301 thousand cubic meters. meters per year, but rose almost twice the amount of untreated sewage. In open ponds and streams without treatment resets the ever-increasing volume of dangerous contaminated waste water containing nitrates, chlorides, chromium, sulfates, petroleum and petroleum products, heavy metal salts. The content of these components, as compared to 1990. Increased significantly, and by 2005 is projected to increase further by about 40%.

Most susceptible to contamination in their middle and lower basins flows Chu, Syr Darya, the Kara-Darya Jergalan, Tiup and several others. Numerous dams and mine waste tailings, which disposed radioactive substances, heavy metals, tsiansoderzhaschie matter, cause serious concern. They are located usually in the intermountain valleys and ravines, alluvial fans and floodplains. With the recent intensification of man-made catastrophic events, landslide, debris flow, erosion, the threat of pollution of surface water and groundwater increases. Sewage systems with treatment plants have only 56% of the total number of cities, towns and regional centers.

At present, the whole country, from the existing 350 facilities for wastewater sanitary requirements correspond only 105 (30%) did not perform their functions 140 (40%), and the efficiency of sewage treatment is low and does not meet regulatory requirements. So urgent reconstruction, repair, completion of construction works require treatment facilities Karakol, Cholpon-Ata, Balykchy, Jalal-Abad, Osh, Tokmok, Mailuu-Suu, Naryn, and many other treatment facilities mountain towns and villages that are in critical condition. In the remote mountain villages of the population uses drinking water directly from rivers, without knowing the extent of pollution of rivers, as well as the presence or absence of iodine in it.

Therefore, there is an urgent problem: lack of public information about the mineral composition of water supplied to them and man-caused pollution, as well as ignorance of the methods of water disinfection. Environmental hazards of this process lies in the fact that many chemicals (nitrates, pesticides, heavy metals) is quite a long period are not subject to decomposition and neutralization. If this does not stop the dangerous process, it creates a real risk of loss of these deposits of underground water. The economic damage from the use of irrigation regime Toktogul reservoir is estimated at 61.5 million dollars a year, but from the basic ingredients of water pollution the total damage for the year amounts to 135 thousand U.S. dollars.

Much of the water are removed mislaid.