Water

Mar 12, 12 Water

The formation of runoff and drainage network on the territory of Kyrgyzstan have a huge impact orographic structure and topography, climatic conditions and the presence of glaciers. Mountain ranges of Kyrgyzstan are the barriers to moist air masses from the west, north-west and north, and the natural accumulators of atmospheric moisture. Front Range and the corresponding slopes are provided with moisture better than the opposite east., South-east. and the south. slopes. The distribution of rainfall and river network in the territory depends on the position of an area relative to the moist air masses and is subject to the laws of altitudinal zones. Most river systems refers to the Aral Basin, to the systems of the major rivers of Central Asia – the Syr Darya and Amu-Darya. Pools, pp. Chui and Talas, though belong to the basin of the Aral Sea, but their waters do not deliver to main water arteries and form, together with a pool of Lake Issyk-Cal drainage hydro graphic system. South-east. part of the territory of the republic is the domain of the theory of the formation of runoff. Tarim – waterway of western China, and the small size of the pool r.Karkyra belongs to the basin of Lake Balkhash. By the nature of the water balance and runoff genesis of the republic's territory is divided into two hydrologic region – the region of formation and dispersal area runoff. For the region is characterized by the formation of a positive water balance, these areas less susceptible to modern anthropogenic influences. Here, the proceeds of atmospheric moisture is greater than its fumes, and environmental conditions are favorable for the formation of a surface one hundred minute. The area is located below the diffusion flow of formation, at the foot of the mountain and foothill valleys. Atmospheric precipitation is considerably less than on the slopes, and the vapors, on the contrary, there is more. In this form of surface runoff is limited, and sometimes absent. In addition, waste water generated in the mountains, passing through these areas are lost, seeping into loose sediment plumes foothills and plains, as well as for irrigation. GOVERNMENTAL plains into the foothills groundwater close to the ground and sometimes pinch out to the surface in the form of top-down sources nicknames. Sources, in turn, are involved in feeding the rivers. The outputs of groundwater, sometimes in considerable quantity islands, create separate streams, creeks, called Kara-suu. For example, p. Red near Tokmok only ground supply.

Field runoff is 171.8 km2 area of ​​the territory of Kyrgyzstan is 87%, and the region of dispersion flow of 26.7 thousand km 2, or 13%. Most of the major rivers flow dispersion is outside the territory of Kyrgyzstan. River runoff in the area, usually characterized by the rapid current, large deviations of the longitudinal profile of tion, and have significant reserves of potential energy. In the upper reaches of the rivers reach the slopes of 100-200 ‰ (washed le) and eventually to the mouth and on the plains are reduced to 20-30 ‰.

In Kyrgyzstan in 2044 formed the rivers and streams over 10 km long, the total length, to-ryh is about 35 thousand km. The main power of the river are due to melt snow and glacier waters, the proportion of to-ryh reaches 80%. Rainwater does not constitute a significant part in the diet. The role of storm water increases slightly in the rivers feeding the south-west. slope of Fergana and the north-west. slope Chatkals who ridges. High water in the rivers of Kyrgyzstan is mainly in the spring and summer due to melt snow and ice water. Doge devoe floods and flash floods are possible on the river. Kegart, Kara Kulzha and tributaries Chatkal. Max, the drain is marked by rapid melting of snow and ice in the summer, due to the periodic break you sokogornyh lakes, torrential rains of spring period. Max, the module flow is 300 – 400 l / s • km2. Sometimes the maximum runoff goes into mud floods. We sat down – a characteristic phenomenon for the Western Priysykkelya and new slopes of Fergana Range. Learn more about hot tubs on http://www.lazboyspas.com/!

River. The largest river in Kyrgyzstan – H a p s n, the main component of p. Syr Darya, the Aral Sea basin belongs. Length within the Republic – 535 km, the area of ​​the Bass Basin – 53.7 thousand km 2, is formed from the merger of the Greater and Lesser Naryn (44 km east of Naryn). Great source of Naryn and the whole system is subject r.Kum-Terre, resulting from a glacier in a mountain site Petrov Ak-Shyyrak. Kum-Terre, after merging with r.Ara-Bel, called Taragai be sent to the south-west and merges with r.Karasay, also originating from the Ak-ka Shyyra. From the confluence of these rivers (Taragay and carp) produced large Naryn. Small is the source of the Naryn r.Burhan to-heaven starts with the glaciers of Mount Chymchyk south. spur Teskey Ala-Too. While passing through a narrow valley to the west, Burkina Khan takes on the left a large influx of Archaly continue under the name of the trail merges with Balgart yuschim left tributary Zhylanach and already under the title of Minor flows into the Naryn At Large markets. Naryn River, flowing through the Mid-Naryn skuyu, Toguz-Toroskuyu, Ketmen Tebenskuyu WPA-Dina, cutting through the Fergana mountain range goes to the Fergana basin. Merging is outside Kyrgyzstan r.Kara, gifts, Narin forms a second-largest river in Central Asia – the Syr Darya. Major tributaries of the Naryn: On-Archa, Kazhyrty, At-Bashy, Kekemeren, Chychkan, Uzun Akmat, Alabuga, Kek Irim etc.

Naryn and its tributaries on the classification of V.L.Shultsa rivers are fed by snow and glaciers kovogo food with high water in the summer. Top of flood-end of May, the end – at the origin of September.

Kara gifts I have formed from the merger p. Tar and Kara Kulzha. Length with the main component (r.Tar) – 177 km, the area of ​​Bass Basin 12.4 km2 (within Kyrgyzstan). Major tributaries Zhazy, Kegart, Kara Unkyur (Tentek-Say), Kurshab, Ak-Buur, Aravane-Sai, etc. Merging with p. Naryn Syr Darya forms. Within the Fergana Valley from the surrounding mountain ranges follow many of the river, set to-Many of ryh not reach because of the Syr-Darya parsing of water for irrigation. Major rivers flowing down from the ing Alay and Turkestan Ranges: Fire Ex-Sai, Cox, Isfara, Kojo-Bakyrgan, Ak-Suu (Sardana). On the ridge running down Chatkal Gava-Sai, Pachata, Kasan-Sai and others flowing from cross-listings probability. the slope of the ridge Chatkal Chatkal river and its tributaries belong to the basin Chirchik.

The rivers of the Fergana valley mainly snow and rain and snow and glaciers and floods in the spring and summer. Many rivers have a small weighted height of the pool, but rather a high modulus Photo – 14-23 l / s EP. For the northern rivers. slope of the Alai and Turkestan ranges are typical spring-summer floods. Rivers Chatkal ridges that are mainly fed by melted snow and flood waters began in May. The end of the flood came at the end of June. Some rye small streams dry up in summer. Waterboy ABILITY basin – 5-6 l / s • km2. In the foothills of the Fergana Valley and adyr development you temporary streams where the water comes in the spring during snowmelt or heavy rains pass. Sometimes they turn into mudslides. Alai valley of the river belong to the basin of the Amu-Darya. The main waterway is the Alai Valley p. K s h s l – S y component of p. Vakhsh. Its length in the range of Kyrgyzstan 222 km, the area in the basin – 7680 km2. It starts from the confluence of River. Isla ma and Kara-Suu. Major tributaries of Kyzyl-Agyn, Altyn-Dara, Achyk Tash, Kaman-Suu, Kek-Suu. The main rivers are the sources of supply that lye ice and snow water. Flood takes place in the summer, the average multiyear tions flow at the exit from the Republic – 56.5 m3/sec.

The largest river of the North of Kyrgyzstan – r.Ch a second, the total length of 1,030 km-swarm. Of these, 260 km passes through Kyrgyzsta on. The basin area 67.5 km2, of which within the 22 km2 of Kyrgyzstan. The average set goletny flow, after merging with r.Chon-Kemin is 53 m3 / s, and on the border with Kazakhstan, 71 m3 / s. The river begins in Kochkor none of merger p. Zhoon-irrigation ditch and Kara Kuzhur and leaves early in the app. part of the Issyk-Kelskoy basin, and then, breaking through the Boom gorge, goes to the Chu valley. Major tributaries: Chon-Kemin, Kichi-Kemin, Kyzyl-Suu Shamshy, Kegety, Issyk-Ata, Alamyudyun, Ala-Archa, Ak-Suu, Kara-Ball and others that

The water regime of rivers Chu basin neodymium Nakov. Prior to Ortho-Tokoy River reservoir formed in the same climatic conditions, after it – in the other. In the upper reaches of the river With a low modulus of runoff UT (4-5 l / s • km 2), because of the arid climate and intramontane positive motion, and the northern rivers. the slope of the ridge Kyrgyzskogo have a high water content pools (11 – 20 l / s • km2). The highest modulus of one hundred ka has r.Alamyudyun (20 l / s • km2). Rivers sat down. slope of the ridge and Kyrgyzskogo p. Jong-min Ke main power are due to ice and snow melt water. Noting etsya flood in the summer. Their weighted average is within the height of 3000-4000 m

River basin. T and L and with the same name of the valley is full. For the source of the river made the merger assume p. Karakol and Uch-Koshoy, from the village of Kara-Buur, it flows through a broad valley (15 km), taking the left tributaries Kalb, Beshtash, Urmaral, Kyumyushtag, Kara-Buur, and other tributaries of the right takes – and the whining Kenkol-dy . The diet of the left tributaries of participating melt snow and ice water, and on the right – the exceptional snow water. High water passing through the CIO in the summer. In the upper r.Talas has an average consumption of about 15 m3/sec, and the alignment of the Doppler Key Reservoir – 33 m3/sec. In the lower reaches for irrigation and the dog lost in the framework of Moyun-Kum in Kazakhstan.

South-east. part of the territory of Kyrgyzstan for the river takes relating to the basin of Tarim – Sary-Jaz, Uzgenchyu-Kuush, Ak-Sai (Kakshaal) and East. Gizi-Suu. The catchment area of ​​these rivers is located at altitudes above 3500 m largest river basin of Tarim – Sa mar-Jaz, eating ice and snow Vym waters near the peak of the Victory, and Han-Ten gris. It starts with the river from the glacier Semenov called Clover, Thor, outside Kyrgyzstan is called Ak-Suu. The length of the camp within the Kyr – 167 km (total length 282 km), the basin area 12 900 km2, the average long-term course of races – 140 m3/sec. Major tributaries Enylchek, Kayyndy, Koi-Kahn, Jaman-Suu Kyuyme, Uch-Cal, the Ak-Shyyrak, etc. The magnitude of the catchment area second only to Sarah-Zhaza hoditsya at p. Kakshaal to-heaven is formed by merging p. Ak-Sai and Myudyuryum. The area of ​​Bass Basin within the Kyrgyz Republic – 7854 km2, the average long-term consumption tions 32 m3 / s. Between the Bass Basin rr.Sary-Jaz and the catchment area is located Kakshaal p. Uzengyu Kuush-to-heaven outside of Kyrgyzstan empties into r.Kakshaal. Its length is up to the border 83 km, the plane schad Basin – 2880 km2. It starts from the merger of rr.Kotur and Sary-Chat. Major tributaries of the Kichi-Uzengyu-Kuush, Jong-Terek, Kichi-Terek, and others to s r s l – y C y (East), one of the sources of r.Kakshaal, originates from the glaciers east. part of the Chon-Alai Mountains. On the south. slope of the Alai Range Kuu follows a major left tributary, the merger with Village le to-eye is directed to the east and leaves the country. Its length is up to the border 33 km, mean annual flow at the boundary of 28-30 m3/sec. Meals are mainly ice-snow nicknames.

The rivers in the Tarim Basin glacial-snow. Some rivers such as Enylchek, Kaindy pure ice. Flood occurs CIO in the summer. Increased runoff from the river glaciers differ (9 – 17 l / s • km2). Where glaciers did not occupy a large area, low flow (2 – 3 l / s • km2).

In closed lake Issyk-Cal fall into the eye of about 80 rivers and streams emerging from the slopes and Kungei Teskey Ala-118 self-drains. The largest of them, pp. And Tup Jyrgalan, located in the east. part of the Issyk-Kelskoy basin. They both originate from the northeast. the slope of the ridge Teskey Ala-Too and in the upper reaches have a direction to the north, and then cooks Chiva to the west and flow into the lake. Major tributaries Tiup: Ken-Suu, Chong-Tash, Taldy-Suu, and others, Jyrgalan: Turgen-Ak-Suu, Ak-Suu, etc. Dr. famous rivers flowing into the lake: Kara count, Jeti-Ogyuz, Chon-Kyzyl-Suu, Zhuuku, Bar Scone, Chon-Ak-Suu, etc.

Most of the major rivers of the Issyk-Kelskoy cat than half snow and ice supplies, sexual Dieu in them takes place in the summer.

By the Lake Balkhash basin is a small coverage catchment p. K and p s to p and to the east country HN. The river is within the Kyrgyz Republic – 69 km catchment area – 572 km2, the average long-term consumption – 15 m3/sec, the magnitude of runoff modulus – 8.5 l / s • km2.

Studies in the basin. Chon-Kyzyl-Suu, as well as analyzes of hydrographs of rivers, etc. districts of the Kyr gyzstana show that the greatest role in shaping the flow of many rivers is highly mountainous area, located above the 3200-3300 m above sea level. In this area, usually centered glaciers and snowfields. Research Vatel (M.Bolshakov) called this area zone of active Noah runoff. From this zone to a smaller water loss Heights territory decreases the theory and the minimum value reached in the piedmont plains. For example, the active zone of runoff formation r.Chon-Kyzyl-Suu is 30% of the catchment area and provides, on average, 80% of the annual runoff. The revealed regularities in the distribution of number of flow on the vertical zonation in the pool r.Chon zyl-Cu-Suu is possible, apparently, considered typical for the GOVERNMENTAL rivers of ice-snow food.

According to the classification V.L.Shultsa rivers of Kyrgyzstan are divided into four types: glacial-snow Vågå food, snow and glaciers, snow supply and snow-pit of rain. Most rivers are rivers in the snow-ice power. A characteristic feature is the FIR is a long river floods in the summer and low water in the cold part of the year. In the rivers of snow and snow-rain power polo vode low water in spring and summer begins.

Lakes and reservoirs. On the territory of Kyr gyzstana included 750 lakes, reservoirs and ponds with chalk FIR total area of ​​6836 km2, ie occupies 3.4% of the republic. Of these, 16 lakes and 11 reservoirs, each have more than 1 km2. Many lakes are small, with a mirror Marketplace Dew 0.02-0.2 km2. Preferably, the lakes are located in the alpine zone, the sample concentration of glaciers, at the height of 3000-4000 m

The largest lake in Kyrgyzstan, Issyk-K e l. This is one of the largest mountain lakes in the world. It is located in a tectonic depression between the ridges Teskey Ala-Too and Kungey Ala-Too. The absolute height of the water's edge in 1607 m water surface area – 6236 km 2, max depth of -668 m, average – 278.4 m, length of -178 km, max, width – 60 km, average width – 35 km, the volume of water – 1738 km 3, the length of the coastline – 688 km. Since the mid-19th to late 20th century (1856 – 2000) the lake level dropped to 8.5 m in the late 80s of the 20th century. there was some stabilization to its increase (from 3 to 13 m c c m). Issyk-Cal – frost on the lake and the terminology refers to the automatic mode subtropical, although located in the temperate zone and the value significantly high above sea level. The annual fluctuation of temperature in the range of positive values ​​(from 20 to 4