Groundwater

Jan 31, 12 Groundwater

As a result of neotectonic movements to transform the intermontane basins and mountain for adoption. Depressions are made and unconsolidated unconsolidated sediments and rock uplift, folded Proterozoic and Paleoproterozoic zoyskimi rocks subjected to complex tech tonic violations permeated the set of cracks of different property. In areas of concentrated employment fractured groundwater to-rye come in the form of springs on the day the surface and are used for water supply. Of the ground (mostly) groundwater resources in Kyrgyzstan is concentrated in a fraction of tries. Underground water is formed and used as a result of infiltration TEMPERATURES ostnyh watercourses. From other useful fossils emyh groundwater differ in that their raw reserves are constantly replenished, but the primary resources play a crucial role. Major international mining basin, located in the northern. p-tries of Kyrgyzstan, a relatively rich in underground water, and in the south. p-tries of the republic under the groundwater reserves are much smaller, which is associated with less favorable conditions the accumulation of groundwater in the marginal parts of the Fergana Basin tezianskogo al.

Underground fresh water are of great importance for water supply of populated areas comrade, irrigation's. land, subsistence, and other industrial needs Stein. The Republic has mineral waters of all types and varieties. They have been widely used for medicinal purposes and for drinking

Groundwater in Kyrgyzstan are used for different types of water supply, irrigation, and in České balneologists purposes. As the practical use of groundwater and increased the scope of numerous theoretical studies hydrogeologists. The formation of groundwater is determined by its location in Kyrgyzstan in the mountain-folded regions Tenir Too and Pamir-Alai. Cal features of hydrogeological conditions and groundwater resources of the republic of the public are closely related to geological and structural factors, topography and climate, as well as the influ yaniem engineering of human activity. In Kyrgyzstan, the main structurally separate a three-storey hydro: the top, waiting for the inclusion, respectively, the pore groundwater in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments tions of media – mainly pore-fissure water in the Neogene-Paleogene poluskalnyh and Mesozoic rocks, below – fractured, at least – fractured vein and fracture-karst water in the Paleozoic and Proterozoic rock formation transformations. By combining these floors in the newer Shih structural forms in the modern relief highlighted two main hydrogeological structures – arrays and hydro-artesian basins. They are most manifest features of the formation and accumulation in the bowels of the earth groundwater, and their ter ritorialnogo distribution and redistribution of internal ne way traffic.

Hydrogeological arrays represent projections on the surface of the lower structural and hydrogeological floor to mark the fold-block uplifts the pits – the ridges, where the predominant nuclear explosion lyayutsya fractured ground (non-pressurized) water circulating scattered flux E in the weathering zone at depths of several tens to up to 150-200 m on the structural-geological conditions in the republic the following types of hydrogeological arrays composed of mostly igneous rocks (Kyungeysky, Teskeysky Ala-Too, Suusamyr ridges, etc.), composed mainly of metamorphic rocks nye (Talas, Zhetimbelsky ridges and other .), formed by terrigenous, carbonate and volcanic rocks (Al-Bashynsky, Kirghiz, Kakshaalsky, Alai, Turkestan ranges, etc.), composed of sedimentary rocks (Fergana mountain range). Hydrogeologists cal arrays are deeply dissected topography, large gradients of the slopes thalwegs, on the falling precipitation is only slightly by going to replenish groundwater, and for the most part come to the river flow. Because of this, the reserves of underground water, both natural and operational, there are relatively small.

Artesian pools is a repository of groundwater associated with a complex folded-block troughs – intermontane basins, where the foundations of Noah importance are the upper and middle structures structurally and hydrogeological floors, especially hny faiths, which has significant resources of fresh water, the most accessible for practical use REFLECTION. On the territory of the camp Kyr released dozens of pools of different levels with different conditions of accumulation leniya cover and with varying degrees of openness runoff. Sustainable Pools n ro gibaniya have the most complete section of the Paleogene-Neogene and Quaternary sediments. Power cover 4-5 km. Power parity only quaternary savings – more than 300 tons This structure creates a favorable cover for a chance to formation of groundwater resources. This Chui, Talas, Issyk-Kelsky, Al-Bashynsky, Caravan Kekzharsky, Nookat sky, Alay, Fergana, Ortoalyshsky pools. Pools have a reduced deflection of an unstable section of the Paleogene-Neogene accumulations, discontinuous distribution of Quaternary deposits, with a power rarely reaches 100 tons of This circumstance led to limited-benefit of a pleasant opportunity for the formation of an FIR in such pools of groundwater resources. These include Alabuga-Naryn, Suusamyr, Zhumgalsky, Toguz-Torosky, Toktogul, Chon-Kemin, Chatkal, Chater-Kelsky, Ak-Sai pools. Inversion section of swimming pools have reduced the Paleogene-Neogene deposits of Quaternary sediments in power rarely reaches 50 m Such a structure determines the possible adverse STI for the formation of groundwater resources. Among the pools of this type include Son-kelsky, Arpinsky, Kazhysaysky, Ara-Kum-Bel-Terek, Upper Naryn, Sary-Zhazs cue Teleksky, Oktorkoysky, Isfara-Isfaninsky.

All in all territory of Kyrgyzstan stands about 50 artesian basins, of which about 30 – large and medium. As a rule, they have a three-story structure, and are divided into external tion, mainly Mesozoic kaynozoys Kie, to-rye during the latest stage were developing on the background of folded-block subsidence, and internally-Cenozoic, the Quaternary, which under Mr. undergone the process of raising period together with the hydrogeological massifs. Chiyah greatest resources are concentrated in the outer basin Artesia anskih: Chui, Issyk-Kelskom, Ta lasskom, Fergana (within the country), etc. In the interior basins are, in most cases much less: On-Alabuga rynskom, Toguz-Toroskom, Arpinskom, Al-Ba shynskom, Kochkor, Zhumgalskom etc.

The total value of natural resources, pre snyh groundwater Republic – 330 m3/sec. In addition, the thickness of the Quaternary vodovme absorbing species contains about 650 km3 of statistics (con-capacitive) of groundwater from a 300-km 3 ryh associated with Chuisk artesian basin. The percentage of proven reserves in various fields oscillate letsya differently. The total operational abstraction of groundwater is equal to 5.2 million m3/day, of which 2.0 – for household and drinking water consumption, 2.3 – for irrigation, 0.8 – for about the industrial sectors and technological consumption, 0.1 – for pasture irrigation. According to the anomalous composition and temperature of groundwater Kyr gyzstana allocated a large group of water thermo General will, to-rye suitable for use as a therapeutic NIJ, energy or industrial. The total number of plots and fields manifested representations of water in the country is close to 150 (see Art. Mineral water).

Mineral water – underground (at least – on of surface) water, characterized by increase shennym mineral content of biologically active (at least – organic) components comrade and have specific physical and chemical properties of x (radioactivity, etc.), what is the basis of their effect on the human body-century and therapeutic use. With medical Tse lyami also use artificial cooking lyaemye mineral water.

In the Turkic-speaking peoples of natural waters with healing properties, is called the Arashan or Arasan. They differ visually tory from the variety of natural water tempera ture and the gas discharge. The people, the population such as those reflected Kyrgyz territory from ancient times used the healing properties of water in E General will.

In Kyrgyzstan there are more than 250 natural and artificial (wells) manifestations of mineral water. Of the 40 types of mineral water isolated in practical health resort, 30 were found in the territory of Kyrgyzstan, as well as 10 other types, have no close analogues ing. Mineral water from holding high count (compared to fresh), salts, gases, have specific properties (temperature, radioactivity, etc.), giving rise to their therapeutic effect.

In accordance with the above definition is developed and put into practice the use of mineral waters following Terry critical evaluation (see Table 1).

All mineral water in the Kyr gyzstana, depending on their chemical wc tava, properties, and therapeutic value, divided into the following spa of the group: saline waters and brines, carbon, silicon thermal grained, radon, sulfide, iron, and bromine.

Saline waters and brines. The mineral waters have a very wide range of salinity (1 g / l to limit saturated salt brine 500-600 g / l), gas shut-ha are represented, mostly nitrogen and methane in an ionic composition dominated by SO 4 2 -, Cl -, Na, less Ca 2 and Mg 2. Species assigned to this group, common in platforms and artesian basins in the structure of exist-ryh participants thick layers of sedimentary rocks. They were especially numerous in artesian basins, salt-GOVERNMENTAL complex formations. Found in all the intermontane basins of artesian gyzstana Kyr. They are linked to form halogen tions, mainly with E glauberitovoy neralizatsiey. The chemical composition of the predominance given ions Na, SO 4 2 -, C1-Their salinity varies from 10 to 250-350 g / l. The main representatives of the salted water and brine mineral water are some of the coastal plane schadey Issyk-Kelskogo Artesian Caribbean, uncovered wells to depths of 1000 m, with a maximum salinity (in the Neogene sediments), 64 g / l; Bishkek mineral waters in the central part of STI Chu basin with a salinity of 50.0 g / l; Zhyrgalanskoe – 138 g / l; Tuzskoe (Leylek district) – 253 g / l; Uch-Clover – Chaar, Kudukskoe – 200 g / l, the Uch-Terek (Ketmen- Tebenskaya Valley) – 346 g / l, and other salt water and brines have high medicinal properties, they are used for drinking water treatment (for dilute direction), baths, pools, etc. balneologiches FIR procedures, as well as for the extraction of useful components and their connections (sodium chloride, iodine, bromine, sodium, etc.) and prepare a wide range of drugs.

Carbonated water. Natural waters with different ionic composition, and temperature ered to mine, and it contains not less 0.75 g / l of carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide, CO2). Among the mineral waters used for therapeutic purposes, a group of carbonic water is one of the major groups and most effective Noah. To use them as drinking GOVERNMENTAL therapeutic and medical messes CO content must not be less than 0.5 g / l. Carbonated water lyayut of one of the most extensive provinces of mineral water, which has global distribution. In geostructural manifestations of these waters are confined to areas of recent volcanism and intense mountain building. Significant role in the formation of carbonate waters are as shallow faults and major regional faults. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan in the present time about 30 known deposits and occurrences of carbonate waters containing free carbon dioxide in the nuyu: Number of 500 or more mg / l. Most of them are located in the Fergana ridges are: in the basin. Zhazy (areas Arkar-Shoro, baibiche, Jol-Shepherd, Kara Shoro, Kennels, you, Kek-Jar, Kulubek, Jong-Shepherd, and others) in the basin is not p. Tar (areas kulun, Seok, Terek, Tuz-Ashu) in the basin. Arp (Karakol, Kyzyl-Beles) in the basin. Kara Kulzha (Karakol, Kara Kulzha, Suuk-Terre, Sur-Tash, Shilbili), the Ak-Say valley and its mountain frame (Besh-Belchir Arashan, Kel-Suu, Uselek, Chater-Cal) in Zhumgalskoy Valley (Kara-, Chamyndy, Beyshen-Say), in the Issyk-Kelskoy Valley (Tuu pa-Suu Ulakol, Arabel). Mineralization letsya oscillate within 1,8-40 g / l. The chemical composition of – calcium bicarbonate, magnesium-guide rokarbonatnye calcium and sodium bicarbonate. Have high therapeutic unusual properties are close to the well-known counterpart in E therapeutic table waters zhomi Bohr, Essentuki, Narzan, Arzni and others at the present time on an industrial basis differences vayutsya carbonated water Besh-Belchir Arashan, Kara Shoro, Ak- Suu. Industry stocks of carbon dioxide in water in Kyrgyzstan are in the category – 104 m3/day, C1-69 m3 / cym and C2-50 m3/day.

Siliceous thermal waters. Natural, warm and hot alkaline water of low salinity (0.4 to 2.0 g / l) to limit the possession of a sodium cation with you sokim content of silicic acid (50 to 60 mg / l) and high alkalinity (pH greater than 8 and 6). In addition to silica in the waters of common anomalous fluorine content (up to 10-15 tg / L), as well as a number of other microcomponents. Their temperature ranges from 20 to 100