Problems and possible strategies to address them

Jan 19, 12 Problems and possible strategies to address them

Problems and possible strategies to address them

Natural and human cataclysm and ways to overcome them

Natural disasters in the mountains are the result of geotectonic nature of the mountains and their environmental performance. However, disasters are often caused by human activity. To the community challenging task arises as to minimize the risk of man-made disasters and to minimize the risk and consequences of natural disasters.

The most dangerous natural disasters in Kyrgyzstan include earthquakes, floods, landslides and avalanches. In Kyrgyzstan every year more than 3,000 earthquakes, 10 of which are strong. Every 10-15 years there is another devastating earthquake. Human activities are having an impact on flooding, landslides and avalanches, mainly by changing the vegetation cover. Even at such a thing as an earthquake can be provided provocative effect of the construction of artificial reservoirs, or mining activities. Learn more about dating mature!

In order to prevent the negative effects of natural and man-made disasters must comply with the relevant requirements of the safe location of settlements, and their construction, which is a violation and the seismic hazard and the risk for floods and landslides. The basis should be a simple but effective disaster preparedness plan, with specific practical response capabilities and capacities to cope with disasters. In this regard, it is essential that the national forces to deal with emergencies could help in a few hours.

AGRICULTURE

Agriculture is defined herein as encompassing all production activities on the ground with the exception of forestry. It is the basic form of natural resources of Kyrgyzstan.

The problem of the agricultural sector, Agricultural resources in the mountains are not used in a sustainable manner to obtain the optimum benefit of the population of Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia, as mentioned in Chapter 4.3.3, should be seen against the background of that mountain in Kyrgyzstan have been declared high-risk zones. They have been declared as such in connection with exposure to natural disasters (earthquakes, avalanches, floods), have severe climatic conditions, in connection with which farmers can not be guaranteed to get good yields. According to the Resolution of Government of the Kyrghyz, 13 mountain Kyrgyzskoy Republic found unfavorable, due to poor natural and climatic conditions.

In addition, agriculture in the mountains of Kyrgyzstan suffers from the process of land reform, which began soon after independence in 1991. As a result of economic reforms, the land of former state and collective farms were allocated small plots of land among the inhabitants. In January 2000 there were 67,217 in Kyrgyzstan farms of which 66,555 were private, 605-collective (including 45 joint-stock companies), 279 integrated farms and 281 agricultural cooperatives and state farms 57.

The economic crisis that followed immediately after independence, has led to the closure of refineries and other businesses and the loss of opportunities for alternative employment for the population in mountain areas. As a result, the majority of mountain areas shifted to the production of crops and livestock products, to ensure survival.

Problems of animal production

• The above difficulties are compounded by the low efficiency of animal production – the basis of agriculture in mountain regions. This problem, along with a decrease in the number of livestock, closely linked to land reform. Due to the lack of permanent income, the population is mostly sold off the cattle. A large number of cattle has gone to pay debts of collective and state farms, after they disbanded, some cattle were sold or eaten just families in the early years of an independent state.

• The number of sheep fell in the first place among the fine-wool (Merino) breeds kept solely by collective farms. The sheep population is currently about 4.7 million head, contained mainly in private farms. In Soviet times the number of cattle was about 15 million. The country has about 970,000 head of cattle, 601,000 goats, 334,000 horses, 110,000 hogs and 2.9 million poultry. Approximately 30% of all private farms of cattle there. Up to 40% of all private farms do not breed cattle, up to 42% of farms are not involved in breeding sheep and 70% are bred horses. Meanwhile, 6% of private farms growing pigs and 20% – are bred goats. The population decreased from 79 yaks, two thousand in 1978 to only 16.9 thousand units (January 2000).

• In the last few years beekeeping in Kyrgyzstan decreased 9.5 times. This was probably due to loss of market infrastructure and high total startup costs. During the recent bee was again to expand as high-altitude pastures are no longer used for grazing and, therefore, flowering plants more intense. In addition, improved conditions for marketing of honey in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.

• Poor economic activity of farms had a negative impact on rangeland management and animal husbandry technology. As a result of gaining ownership of land, many of the former employees of collective and state farms are now compelled to lead a farm, without any training. This caused a significant decline in livestock technology.

• The collapse of state and collective farms has resulted in the disappearance of the tribal government works to eliminate the use of artificial insemination and the disintegration of many other agricultural services. All this led to a gradual loss of breeding pedigree animals, causing a huge and long-term, damage to livestock. But the new production structure in need of new production technologies. The introduction of new technologies at the same time provides the best adaptation of species to mountain conditions.

• Destroyed state system of Veterinary Services. Farmers are not able to conduct regular veterinary examination of animals. Farmers lack knowledge about how to analyze the cost-effectiveness study, treatment of animals and the benefits of regular veterinary examinations. It should be noted that in many regions have limited access to veterinary services. There is a service of the state of vaccination against disease, but access to it is not easy for farmers due to lack of information and knowledge of the weak.

• Inefficient management of pasture resources due to lack of experience of farmers, livestock herds because of the small, fuzzy property rights to land and pastures, due to lack of organizational infrastructure.

• Natural grass ecosystems are used in mountainous areas as pastures and hay meadows are important to the economy of Kyrgyzstan. Pastures make up about 30-35% of the territory of Kyrgyzstan – nine million hectares – 5.6 million hectares are located in mountainous areas and 2.1 million hectares in the villages (in valleys). About 70% of these pastures are degraded due to excessive grazing of livestock on them and the depletion of forage species. Priselski pastures (winter pastures), economic considerations are used effectively throughout the year, leading to their degradation. This situation is very bad as far as the sighting pastures should be used during the critical shortage of feed in the winter.

• Conversely, distant pastures located in the highlands, are underutilized. However, these grasslands are in the process of recovery due to the collapse of the stripping of livestock, but now they grow a lot of inedible species. People almost never use these pastures, because of the relatively high costs for the driving of livestock. In addition, the summer (outrun) pasture, owned by the state. Villages traditionally have the right to graze on these pastures, but the legal basis for this is actually missing. If insufficient use of summer pastures continues, the village would lose them their traditional rights.

• How to provide winter fodder is one of the major constraints of livestock development. Many farmers find it difficult to increase the number of livestock due to lack of winter feed. Production of fodder crop has declined, since the fields are essential for growing crops for human survival. In addition, virtually stopped the use of feed concentrates, as Budget farmers such costs can not stand.

• The quality of hay produced by farmers is low. Not having the experience of farmers do not know or do not attach importance to the correct timing hay when the hay has a maximum nutritional value. Most likely, farmers can not cope with the organization of a timely harvest hay for other reasons. In many mountain regions, due to migration into the valley there is a shortage of labor for harvesting, or when the haymaking. There is a problem of transportation of hay in the village, because of the very short growing season in the high mountains, and it is associated with the risk of spoilage of hay due to adverse weather conditions.

• Difficulties after independence barriers to trade with the valley communities of neighboring countries have led to difficulties in marketing of agricultural products in many mountain communities in Kyrgyzstan. Purchasing power of the population of Kyrgyzstan is very low, and market prices too low, which limits the profitability of livestock production. However, recently the price of meat increased, and farmers were able to increase their herds.

The problems of growing crops on arable land

• As a result of economic reforms and fragmentation of arable land into small farm plots, commercial production of agricultural products became unprofitable, especially in the dry lands. As a result, many rural inhabitants engaged in agriculture is often just to maintain existence and live below the poverty level.

• The areas of arable land in the mountainous regions account for 272,900 hectares, of which 52% is used for the production of cereals and 38% – the production of forage crops. Because of the short growing season productivity of crops is low. In 2000 the yield was an average of 20-25 tons per hectare.

• Low yields are associated with a decrease in soil fertility, insufficient fertilizer. Underutilized manure on the fields, it is used only in the gardens, or as a fuel due to insufficient electricity supply. In mountainous regions, farmers mainly use your seed, which leads to even lower yields of improved varieties. In addition, varieties used, insufficiently adapted to mountain conditions. Due to the destruction of the affected government agencies semenovodchestvo, and virtually no possibility of progress in breeding.

• The situation of farmers. Farmers in mountain regions, are experiencing difficulties with the acquisition of mineral fertilizers, pesticides, etc. due to lack of money.

• Farmers are not used technology of crop rotation on small plots. Food security of the family dictates the cultivation of wheat and potatoes. In the highland barley is grown. Legumes, enriching the soil with nitrogen, only recently have taken place as a forage crop rotation (mainly sainfoin). But until now they grow so small that it can not stop a serious decline in soil fertility.

• Weeds are a serious problem. To carry out mechanical soil treatment is often not the appropriate technology, and although the area is small, and chemical weed control is not conducted due to the lack of herbicides, which, moreover, are too expensive for farmers. Pests of the Potato (Colorado beetle) are all growing threat that farmers are not able to cope without outside support.

• In Kyrgyzstan, 64% of arable land in need of irrigation. The share of irrigated land in the mountainous regions as small as possible, but it is also important. Problems with irrigation begins at the community level. At the time, collective and state farms used irrigation system areas with local irrigation networks. Now this function is transferred to the community that does not have adequate structures and skills to cope with this task. This often leads to unfair and unequal access or lack of water for irrigation of individual farm plots. Local irrigation canals are in disrepair, which also increases the problem of irrigation.

• Watering is done furrow method, but under conditions of rough surface fields appear very often filled with waterlogged areas and areas to which water can not reach. Violated terms of irrigation. Compared with modern methods of irrigation, in mountainous areas using too much water, which washes away the soil humus, and reduces productivity. In the valleys of the water is also used unproductively.

• In many cases, the fields are too steep, resulting in the loss of soil humus and erosion.

The problems of agricultural and livestock production in mountain areas

• Access to credit and investment for the purchase of all kinds of necessary materials (pesticides, etc.) is a serious problem for the mountain areas. In Kyrgyzstan, operates a number of lending institutions, but the lack of information hampered lending to farmers, farmers' inability to prepare a sound cost-benefit analysis (business plan) and the presence of bribery. Often the loan is delayed due to the fact that the money comes too late. Farmers are belatedly draw up loan documents, and lending institutions are spending too much time for consideration of applications for loans.

• Lack of farmer's experience, training and education in the majority of farmers is a significant problem. Traditional forms of management in the mountains was almost forgotten during the Soviet period, and production methods of collective and state farms do not meet the small farmers. A very small number of state and collective farm workers were professionals with extensive knowledge is sufficient, which would give them the opportunity to own and successfully manage the farm. Many vocational and technical institutions of the country are not functioning, the remaining part is trying to survive by any means, and are engaged in teaching have little to do with the needs of farms in this situation.

• Lack of linkages with processing industries and marketing is the most important problem the country and especially its mountainous regions. This is partly a result of low purchasing power Kyrgyzskogo population, and break ties with the markets of neighboring countries. In addition, private buyers is difficult to work with small production units. This is causing serious difficulties in selling a small surplus of their products.

Strategy and objectives of agriculture in mountain areas

The basic agricultural conditions of mountainous areas of Kyrgyzstan, probably, like any mountain terrain, compounded by difficulties in access, marginalization, steep slopes, low temperature and shorter growing seasons. Agriculture must be adapted to these conditions. Traditions of management in the mountains is largely lost. In others, like the mountain regions of the world, farmers seek to reduce risk through diversification, ie, use of low-intensity land use, as opposed to the currently existing methods of resource-use trends.

Livestock is an important type of agricultural

activities for mountain farmers. If possible, must be overcome the problem of feed during the winter (to improve the quality senablagodarya use of balances of irrigated and rain-fed fields and feed production in the implementation of crop rotation). Animal production in mountainous regions of Kyrgyzstan is a relatively low-cost. Without a doubt, we need a veterinary system to ensure the health of livestock, its pedigree breeding, adaptation to the needs and nature of small-scale farmers. Uses the high altitude yak pasture resources and requires the least cost and, therefore, prospectively.